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PROCEEDINGS 



OF THE 



Brookline Historical Society 



AT THE 



ANNUAL MEETING, JANUARY 23, 1907 



/ 



PROCEEDINGS 



OF THE 



Brookline Historical Society 



AT THE 



ANNUAL MEETING, JANUARY 23, 1907 







BROOKLINE, MASS. 

PUBLISHED BY THE SOCIETY 

M CM VII 



Ft A 




Gift 
The Socifct? 



CONTENTS. 



I. President's Address .... 

II. Report of the Treasurer . 

III. Report of the Nominating Committee 

IV. A Short History of Pierce Hall, with 

Some Personal Recollections 

V. The Old Worcester Turnpike . 

VI. Charter of Corporation 

VII. Officers and Committees for 1907 

VIII. List of Members .... 

IX. By-Laws 



5 

14 
15 

16 
24 
49 
51 
53 
59 



BROOKLINE HISTORICAL SOCIETY. 



SIXTH ANNUAL MEETING. 



The sixth annual meeting of the BrookHne His- 
torical Society was held in the G. A. R. Room, Town 
Hall, Brookline, Mass., on Wednesday, January 23, 
1907, at 8 p. M., in accordance with a notice mailed to 
every member. President Rufus G. F. Candage was 
in the chair. 

The records of the last annual and monthly meet- 
ings were read by the clerk and approved. 

The President then read his annual address. 

PRESIDENT'S ANNUAL ADDRESS. 

Members of the Brooklifie Historical Society :- — 

Ladies and Gentlemen, — Time strides on unimpaired in energy 
and with unerring regularity, 

" Onward ever, halting never in his pace," 
and with his march we have reached the sixth annual meeting of 
our Society and here meet to elect officers for the year 1907, and to 
briefly consider events which have passed into history. 

The year 1906 was memorable in occurrences which will be 
handed down in history to future generations, the destruction 
of San Francisco and Valparaiso by earthquake and fire, with 
the loss of hundreds of lives and millions of property, being 
among the most noticeable. It was the most appalling calamity 
that ever took place in America, and awakened a wider sympathy 
than any other known in ancient or modern times, and demon- 
strates that human sympathy and generous aid in time of great 



emergencies and need are at this age not confined by national 
boundaries or races, but are world-wide, making of all peoples one 
family, and uniting them in the bonds of brotherhood. 

The foregoing had scarcely been written when the world was 
again startled by news flashed over the wires that Jamaica, still 
nearer our homes, had suffered in like manner on January 14, 1907, 
and that the city of Kingston had been by earthquake and tire de- 
stroyed, with great loss of life and property, and that United 
States war vessels under command of Admiral Davis had been 
ordered from Cuba and were on the way to Kingston to render 
any needed assistance. Just how great was the loss of lives and 
property is not known at this writing, but it is acknowledged to 
be very great, as details will doubtless confirm. 

Your President extends thanks to officers, committees and 
members of the Society for aid given him in the discharge of his 
duties in the year past, and for all efforts put forth for the advance- 
ment and growth the Society has attained. Through these efforts 
the Society has accomplished good work, and by their continuance 
more will be accomplished in the year upon which we have en- 
tered and in other years yet to come. 

EIGHT PAPERS HAVE BEEN READ 

before the Society in the past year. In January, the President's 
Annual Address ; in February, " The Myth of Mary Chilton," by 
Samuel Arthur Bent ; in March, " Reminiscences of the War 
of the Rebellion," by Charles F. Read, prepared by E. F. 
Reed ; in April, " Up the Amazon and Madeira Rivers," by 
Franklin A. Snow; in May, "Reminiscences of the Old Read- 
ville Camp," by Augustus S. Lovett, Commander of C. L. 
Chandler Post 143, G. A. R., of Brookline ; in October, " Personal 
Experiences in Rebel Prisons," by William Finney, member of G, 
A. R., Post 143; in November, "A Short History of Pierce Hall 
and Personal Reminiscences Connected Therewith," by Charles 
H. Stearns, Vice-President of this Society ; in December, 
"The Old Worcester Turnpike, or Boston to Worcester by Pack- 
horse, Stagecoach and Trolley," by Edward Wild Baker, 
Secretary of the Society. 

THE PUBLICATIONS OF THE SOCIETY 

in the past year consisted of the Proceedings, the President's 
Annual Address, "The Old Walnut Street Burying Ground," a 
paper read before the Society in December, 1901, by the Clerk, 
Edward Wild Baker, etc, all in one volume. 



THE MEMBERSHIP OF THE SOCIETY 

in 1905 was 153, and additions in 1906 were 36, carrying the num- 
ber to 189. Five deaths occurred during 1906, and there were 22 
lapses and withdrawals, leaving a net gain of 11, and the present 
number at 162. 

The special effort made during the past year to increase the 
membership was successful, and as a result a net gain of 1 1 was 
made, two of whom were Benefactors, paying $50 each as member- 
ship fees, and three Life Members, at $25 each. 

It is to be hoped that the present year will witness as good if not 
better results, which ought to be easy of accomplishment in a town 
of 25,000 people. Let each of us try to bring in a member, and 
thus double our membership roll by the end of the year. 

Every resident, whether native or born elsewhere, owes to the 
town of his domicile something that will forward the town's and 
his own interest. That can be done to some extent by joining this 
Society, thus helping to make it strong and a power in an historical 
sense. There are many persons, doubtless, who would be glad to 
join if the subject-matter and its advantages were set before them 
by an interested member. Try it, and see what the result will be. 
No one knows until the trial has been made. 

THE FIVE DECEASED MEMBERS 

were, first, Miss Lucy S. Davis, a native of the town and a descen- 
dant of early settlers. She was the daughter of Robert Sharp and 
Mary Shannon Davis. She died in Brookline, where she had 
always resided, on May 19, 1906. She became a member of the 
Society at its formation in 1901, and showed much interest in it by 
attending its meetings until declining health prevented. She was 
retiring and unassuming in her demeanor, though always interested 
in her native town and in the affairs of life. The second name 
upon the roll was that of 

WILLIAM TRACY EUSTIS, 

born on Prince street. Boston, September 29, 1822 ; died at his 
home on Beacon street, Brookline, October 11, 1906, aged 84 years 
and 1 2 days. He was seventh in line of descent from William Eustis 
of Rumney Marsh, now Chelsea, Mass., who was residing there in 
1659, through William," Joseph, Joseph,^ William,' and Joseph,*^ 
the latter born June 13, 1794. His mother was Eleanor St. Barbe 
Eustis, daughter of Nicholas, and granddaughter of Nicholas 
Tracy of Newburyport ; she was born June 13, 1799. The Tracy 
family to which she belonged came to New England from Wex- 
ford, Ireland, date not ascertained. 



William Tracy Eustis first attended school in the basement of 
HoUis Street Church, Boston, now Hollis Street Theatre, and con- 
tinued in the public schools of that city until 1835, when he removed 
to Portland, Me., where he finished his school education in 1840. 
Upon leaving school he was employed in the millinery business ; 
later by the house of Cartwright & Thayer in the commission 
business ; still later he was with Sturtevant, Baker & Ahearn in 
the refining and sale of oil, and lastly with Governor Henry J. 
Gardner and Col. J. VV. Wolcott in note brokerage and other 
financial matters. 

He married Martha Gilbert Button, daughter of Henry Worth- 
ington Button, founder of the Boston Evening Transcript, who 
bore him two sons and five daughters ; one of the latter died in 
infancy, the others survive. Mrs. Eustis died June 26, 1900, in her 
72d year. 

Mr. Eustis upon retiring from business devoted his leisure to 
the study of genealogy and history, and had written genealogies of 
his family and of families of his friends, in which he accomplished 
much creditable work. He was a member of the First Corps of 
Cadets, and a member of the Independent Corps of Cadets 
Veteran Association. He was stationed for a time during the late 
Civil War at Fort Warren in Boston Harbor. 

He was a member of the Old Schoolboys of Boston, and 
of the Bostonian Society. He was familiar with the history of 
his native city by study and by observation, and was interested in 
it to the end of his life. 

In 1886 he was elected a resident member of the New England 
Historic Genealogical Society, and for the twenty years of his con- 
nection therewith devoted much time and labor to its interests. 
He was a member of the committee on the reorganization of the 
society in 1893 ; was twelve years a member of its committee on 
finance, 1893 to 1904; three years on the library committee, and 
liberally donated money for the purchase of books, from which 
seventy-eight volumes were added to the library by purchase in the 
last few years. He also offered ^1,000 to the building fund for a 
new building ; was nine years a member of the council, and in these 
and in other ways showed his interest in the work of the society. 

Mr. Eustis removed from Boston to Brookline in 1894, and here 
continued his residence up to the time of his death. When this 
Society was organized in 1901 he became a member and, through 
his influence, also five of his children. He took a deep interest in 
the Society from the first. He presented it a bookcase and about 
a hundred volumes of books, was punctual in attendance at its 
meetings, prepared and read papers before it, served upon its 
committees, and always had a good word to speak in its behalf. 



In his death the Society lost a benefactor, its members a valued 
friend whose example is worthy of commendation and emulation, 
and this memorial of him deserves an abiding-place upon the 
Society's records. 

FREDERICK THAYER STEVENS, 

a member of this Society, and third on the roll of deaths for the 
year past, died at his home, 39 Columbia road, Brookline, October 
13. igo6, aged 67 years. He was born in Boston, and educated in 
the schools of that city, where he continued to reside until his 
removal to Brookline in 1901. He was engaged in banking and 
was for some years cashier of the Globe National Bank of Boston, 
continuing such until its failure by the reckless speculations of its 
president. He became a member of this Society in 1903, took an 
interest in its meetings and in historical affairs generally. He was 
an affable, gentlemanly person, and well liked by all with whom he 
came in business or social contact. 

WILLIAM LIONEL BAKER 

was the fourth member of this Society to pass away from life, 
which occurred at No. 6 Columbia road, Brookline, November 2, 
1906, at the early age of 31 years 2 months and 21 days. He was 
born in Syracuse, N. Y., in 1875, and there received his education. 
He came to Brookline upon leaving school, studied law, and was 
admitted to the Massachusetts Bar, before which he practiced, and 
had gained a growing reputation. He was a member of Beth- 
horon Lodge of Masons, and its senior deacon at the time of his 
death. He was of a sunny disposition, and easily won and held the 
friendship of persons with whom he came in contact. He was 
elected a member of this Society in 1902, and although he had no 
time to give to it, he was interested in its objects and had a pleas- 
ant word to say in its behalf. 

JOHN FRANK PERRY, 

a member of this Society, was the fifth to fall before the destroyer 
in 1906. He died December 5, 1906, at Hotel Lenox in Boston, 
where he and his family had engaged rooms for the winter. 

He was born in New Bedford, Mass., July 23, 1850, and was 56 
years 4 months and 12 days old at the time of his death. He was 
educated in the Friends' School of his native city, and became a 
resident of Brookline in iSgi. 

He was interested in politics and active in town, county, state 
and national affairs as a Republican, and had many friends. He 
became a member of this Society in 1902, and although not active 
in its affairs was interested in its welfare and maintenance. 



10 



THE WHOLE NUMBER OF DEATHS 



reported in the town for 1906 was 367, of which 310 died within the 
town limits and 57 elsewhere ; an increase of 22 over the previous 
year. 

Of that 367 there were 36 males and 57 females who had passed 
the limit of three score and ten. There were 35 who were between 
70 and 75 ; 26 who were between 75 and 80 ; 15 between 80 and 85 ; 
1 1 between 85 and 90 ; and 6 were upwards of 90. 

Those above 90 were Ann Deveny, 90 ; Sarah A. Harris, 91 years 
and 5 months ; Nathaniel D. Whitney, 90 ; Reuben H. Andrews, 92 ; 
Daniel H. Holland, 96 ; and Marantha A. Libby, 97 years 3 months 
and 10 days ; — three males and three females. Of the 93 who were 
over three score and ten, 62 per cent were females and 38 per cent 
males, with a combined age of 556 years and 8 months, and an 
average age of 92 years 9 months and 10 days. 

Of the 93 persons above 70, their combined age was 7570 years 
II months and 4 days, an average of 81 years 4 months and 26^4 
days, if my computations be correct. 

CHANGES OCCUR IN THE TOWN 

from year to year and must continue to take place ; some attract the 
attention of residents, such as the building of a block, house, or 
other structure observed with the eye, and the death of friends and 
acquaintances, but even they pass unnoticed in the lapse of 
time. Many seemingly minor changes occur which pass unseen 
or unheeded, and leave no impression upon the mind of even the 
observant citizen, but when enumerated surprise us all. Some of 
these changes are made apparent by the study of statistics, and by 
the comparison of one period with another. 

FIRST LET us TAKE THE POPULATION 

of Brookline for the year 1875 ^^^ compare it with that of 1905. 
In the former year the State census gave the town 6675, and in the 
latter approximately 25,000, showing an increase nearly fourfold. 
That gives one standard of comparison ; now let us take the 
voting lists. In 1876 there were 11 85 registered voters in town, 
and in 1906 there were 4436, an increase of 3251, or nearly four- 
fold. Of the 4436 in 1906 there remained on the list of those 
registered in 1876 only 162, showing that 1023 had been dropped, 
and 4274 had been added between those two dates ! The person 
who voted on both dates, by study of lists found 161 beside himself 
who were at the election in 1876, and 4274 unknown to him on the 
former occasion, provided all voted at the elections named. The 
inference is that 1023 had died, or perhaps a few were still living 



II 

elsewhere, while more than four times as many had become voters 
by arriving at voting age or having moved into town. The older 
citizen and voter from study of these figures would doubtless be 
surprised, feel more or less lonely in his new alignment and 
realize he was living in a place of change, and likely to continue in 
changes. 

THE TAX LISTS OF THE TOWN 

show that in the year 1876, the centennial year of our nation, there 
were 1786 persons assessed a poll tax, and that in 1906 there 
were assessed 6910, an increase of 5034, or nearly fourfold. The 
value of personal property assessed in 1876 was $10,686,300, and 
in 1906 it was $28,918,700, an increase of $18,232,400, or about one 
and three-fourths. The value of real property in 1876 was 
$16,804,000, and in 1906, $69,363,900, an increase of $52,559,900, 
or about two and thirty-five hundredths. The total value in 1876 
was $27,490,300, and in 1906, $93,282,300, an increase of $65,792,000, 
or about two and four-tenths. 

BROOKLINE BEING A NEARBY SUBURB 

of Boston, in the line of that city's overflow of population, within 
easy and convenient distance by steam and trolley, its fine streets, 
sidewalks, schools, water, police, town government and low rates 
of taxation, all have contributed to the changes we have been con- 
sidering. And though the old residents may lament that the town 
has lost its former rural charm ; that apartments and apartment 
hotels have robbed it of its former desirability as a place of resi- 
dence ; that its population is not what it used to be, — the changes 
have come and are to march on until its streets in the future will 
be faced with continuous blocks of buildings, become metropolitan 
in character and indistinguishable from the neighboring city in 
external appearance, even if it preserves its municipal indepen- 
dence, as most good citizens of the present hope it may. Regret 
such changes as one may, it seems inevitable for them to occur, 
and all must bow and accept them with grace, the current being 
too strong to be stemmed or turned aside. 

We of this Society have no disposition to find fault with occur- 
ring changes. We note them as a part of the town's history, and 
welcome old residents and later comers to join our organization and 
aid us in our work. 

THE BICENTENARY OF THE TOWN, 

This Society was instrumental in calling attention to the bicen- 
tenary of the town's incorporation, in having a committee appointed 
to formulate a plan of the celebration and to carry it into execu- 



12 

tion, also in procuring an appropriation for it. The anniversary 
was observed with appropriate exercises, and a balance of the ap- 
propriation amounting to over $1,500 remained unexpended. The 
committee sought to secure about half of the unexpended balance 
by re-appropriation, to publish the report of the exercises. There 
was an article in the warrant for the annual March meeting of the 
town in 1 906 which was favorably reported upon by the committee 
on articles in the warrant, but which failed of passage by a small 
majority vote; and there the matter rested so far as action on the 
part of the town was concerned. 

Some members of this Society and others interested have 
secured a guaranty fund with the hope of publishing the proceed- 
ings in a volume of about 250 pages, bound in cloth, at $2.50 per 
copy, limited to subscribers. No extra copies will be printed, and 
persons desirous of possessing the work can secure the same by 
filling out subscription blanks for the copies they wish and forward- 
ing same to the committee at an early date, paying for the copies 
upon delivery. Those who do not receive blanks through the 
mail can procure them upon application to the committee which 
will shortly be announced in the papers of the town. 

The book will contain the opening address of the Chairman, 
Moses Williams, Esq. ; the address of Hon. Henry Cabot Lodge, 
United States Senator from Massachusetts, orator of the day ; the 
exercises and address for the school children of the town ; the 
dedication of the bowlder and tablet to the signers of the petition 
for the town's incorporation, etc. ; extracts from the Sunday 
sermons preached in the churches of the town bearing upon the 
subject; the exercises, toasts, and speeches at the dinner in the 
Town Hall concluding the celebration ; orders of exercises ; pro- 
grams, menus, illustrations, etc., such as the committee on 
publication may deem advisable. 

The volume will be printed on durable paper, and will be a 
unique memorial of the celebration, worthy of the occasion and of 
preservation, and also worthy of being handed down to future 
generations. While the publication will be in charge of a com- 
mittee of members of this Society and possibly others, the Society 
will in no way be responsible for its financial success, that being 
covered by the subscriptions and guaranty. The work, it is 
beUe\ ad, will be a credit to its sponsors, and become more and 
more valuable as time rolls on. " Historical Sketches of Brook- 
line," by Miss Woods, published at $3 per copy, now brings $12 
to $15, when copies can be had, and there is reason to believe that 
this volume in the lapse of years will command approximate 
prices, especially as no copies will be for sale outside of 
subscribers. 



13 

The publication of this book is in the line of work for which this 
Society was organized in accordance with its charter — "the study 
of Brookline history, the collection and preservation of its an- 
tiquities, the maintainance of a library, and the publication of 
information relating to the same as shall be deemed expedient." 
In this work all good citizens of the town are cordially invited to 
assist, and to become members of the Society. 

THE DEVOTION HOUSE 

which we hoped to secure for the home of our Society and a 
depository for our antiquities, that they might be placed on exhibi- 
tion for the benefit of the public, remains in the condition described 
a year ago. It is in the custody and care of the Selectmen, who 
have given us no intimation that they desire even an interview 
with this and the patriotic societies of the town, which petitioned 
more than a year ago to have it put in order and placed in their 
charge at a nominal rental. We hope yet to secure it, and by the 
united action of members of this and of the other societies we may 
at some time in the future. I would recommend that such action 
be taken, and if done with united purpose, feel that the Selectmen 
and the town might give it into our custody for the purposes 
named. 

THIS SOCIETY IN THE SIX YEARS 

of its existence has accomplished commendable work along the 
lines for which it was chartered, in papers read before it, in its 
publications containing historic data, in historic manuscripts, 
books, and antiquities collected, some of which for lack of a build- 
ing or rooms in which to make them available, are now stored, 
and should be placed where they could be seen and made available 
by the Society, in an historic building or rooms under its own 
control and custody. 

Let us all work actively and harmoniously together to bring that 
about, and cease not in the present nor in the future in our efforts 
to advance the Society's interests until the Society shall be 
acknowledged an ideal one among the many in this old, historic 
Commonwealth founded by our Pilgrim and Puritan ancestors, and 
having its home in this old, historic, idealistic, and beautiful town 
of Brookline. 



14 



REPORT OF THE TREASURER. 



Edward W. Baker, Treasurer, 
In account with Brookline Historical Society, 

Balance on hand January i, 1906 : — 

Permanent fund .... 

Current fund ..... 



Receipts to December 31, 1906 : — 
Permanent fund 
Current fund 



$SZS 89 

13 19 


$186 
244 


12 

00 



;^549 08 



430 12 



Total balances and receipts . . $979 20 

Expenditures. 
January i, 1906 to December 31, 1906 : — 

From Current Fund. 

Printing Annual Report . . . ;^iio 20 

Printing Notices, etc. ... 50 50 

Postage and Addressing } ^ 

including Special Circular ) ' ' ^'^ 

Purchases of Books, Pictures, etc. . 6 00 



Total expenditures .... 221 30 

Balance January i, 1907 : — 

Permanent fund .... ;^722 01 
Current fund 35 89 

Total balance ..... $757 90 

Edward W. Baker, Treastirer. 

I have examined the accounts of Edward W. Baker, Treas- 
urer of the Brookline Historical Society, and find the same 
correct, with receipted vouchers for all payments. The bank 
books have been examined and the balances on deposit 
December 31, 1906, aggregate $757.90, of which $722.01 is 
Permanent fund and $35.89 is Current fund. 

Charles H. Stearns, Auditor. 



15 



REPORT OF THE NOMINATING COMMITTEE. 



The committee appointed to nominate officers of the 
Society for 1907 made the following report : — 
For Clerk and Treastirer, 
Edward W. Baker. 

For Trustees, 
RuFus G. F. Candage, 
Miss Julia Goddard, 
Mrs. Susan V. Griggs, 
Mrs. Martha A. Kittredge, 
Charles H. Stearns, 
Charles F. White, 
Edward W. Baker. 
(Signed) 

James Adams, 
George S. Mann, 
Luther M. Merrill. 
The report was accepted and it was voted to proceed to 
ballot. The ballot was taken and the candidates nominated 
were unanimously elected. 

Voted, That the Secretary print the President's annual 
address, Treasurer's report, by-laws, list of officers and 
members, and such papers as the Committee on Publications 
may select. 

Edward W. Baker, Clerk. 



i6 



A SHORT HISTORY OF PIERCE HALL WITH SOME 
PERSONAL RECOLLECTIONS. 

Read at Meeting: of Brookline Historical Society, November, 1906. 



The action of the First Parish during the past summer, in very 
materially altering and repairing Pierce Hall (so called), and recently 
the destruction of the parish house by fire, and the almost miracu- 
lous escape of Pierce Hall, which adjoined the parish house, from 
the devouring element, have brought the old building prominently 
before the citizens of the town, and it was thought that some ac- 
count of what is now a historic building, and some personal remin- 
iscences of it might be interesting to our society ; and the following 
rather brief and, from the limited time since the fire, rather crude 
account has been prepared from such data as the writer could 
gather and the records could show. 

The building was originally designed and built for a town hall, 
and also for a district school, to take the place of the old brick 
school. Until 1825, the town meetings were held either in the 
meetinghouse, which was owned and maintained by the town, or 
in the brick schoolhouse which stood on the triangular plot of 
ground just north of the meetinghouse, — the spot which one year 
ago was crowded by the people of the town, including the school- 
children, gathered to dedicate the stone and tablet there erected to 
commemorate the 200th anniversary of the town. I say either the 
one place or the other, for it is an amusing distinction that our 
fathers drew between religious worship and secular transactions, in 
that while it was deemed sacrilegious to have artificial heat in the 
meetinghouse — no matter how severe the wintry winds, — if the 
town meeting was called on a very cold day an adjournment was 
made to the brick schoolhouse, v/hich had a stove in it. It is 
interesting to note the reluctance of the town to authorize the 
expense of the new building, and the vacillation as shown by the 
contradictory votes on the subject. 

The first reference we find to a possible new building was at 
the town meeting held April 5, 1824, when it was voted "that the 
selectmen Thomas W. Sumner, Ebenezer Heath and Joshua C. 
Clark be a committee to examine the state of the brick school- 
house and report at the May meeting the probable expense of Re- 
pairing it and erecting a New House of brick, Wood and Stone. " 
These three were representative men and frequent reference to 
them is found in the town records. They all lived to a good old 
age, and I remember them well. Thomas W. Sumner lived in the 
old wooden house which stood so long on Warren street, on the 



17 

spot where Mr. Hunt now lives. It is the same house where of 
old Jeremy Gridley lived, a paper on whose life our President 
wrote not long ago. A fine picture of the house was given in the 
records of our Society. His garden took in what are now the es- 
tates of Mrs. Poor and Mr. Townsend. He was a retired Boston 
merchant, a kindly gentleman and a good citizen. Ebenezer 
Heath lived in the house now occupied by the Misses Dana on 
Heath street. He was a farmer and his farm took in the beautiful 
hill west of the old reservoir. Joshua C. Clark, or Deacon Clark, as 
he was generally known, lived in the house on Warren street now 
occupied by the Olmsteds. He was a farmer, his land being part 
of that covered by the reservoir, and extending south of Dudley 
street. He was a most excellent citizen. 

On May 3d, the following action was taken : voted, " That the 
Brick schoolhouse be not repaired " ; also voted, " that Mr. 
Sumner be employed to draft a plan of a one-story building to 
accommodate the Town"'; also voted, "that the Selectmen be re- 
quired to call a meeting on Monday next to see whether the Town 
will build a schoolhouse. " The schoolhouse rather than the 
townhouse was the all-essential thing. Then, on May loth, the 
inhabitants of the town having been duly warned, a town meeting 
was held to consider the subject. Deacon John Robinson was 
chosen Moderator. 

Deacon Robinson was a most estimable citizen, and was called 
upon in almost every emergency in which the town found itself. 
He lived on Washington street near the gas holder, just south of 
Beacon street, and was a tanner by trade. He was a selectman 
for thirty-four years ; represented the town in the General Court 
for many years; was a moderator at town meetings, and indeed held 
almost every office in the power of the town to bestow. He died 
in 1854, at an advanced age. It may be interesting to state that 
I recently had the pleasure of shaking hands with Deacon Robin- 
son's great-great-grandson, a lad of eighteen or nineteen years. 

At the meeting mentioned it was voted " that the town build a 
two-story building, the basement to be entirely above ground " ; 
voted, ''that the building be of wood 48 x 28 feet"; voted, 
" that the committee to build be the same who were appointed on 
the expediency of repairing the Brick School House"; voted, 
"that Mr. Richard Sullivan be added to the committee. " (Mr. 
Sullivan lived just above the meetinghouse, where Mrs. Bowditch 
afterwards lived. He was a retired Boston merchant, and made 
several gifts to the meetinghouse.) Voted, "to reconsider the 
vote for building of wood, so far as to give the committee the 
power to build the basement of stone if they think advisable 
that the building be of stone"; voted, "that the Town Treasr. 



be empowered to Borrow what money is necessary to erect the 
building voted above. " 

Evidently the town proceeded forthwith to erect the building, 
for at a meeting called November 29th, it was voted " that the 
selectmen be a committee to dispose of the Brick Schoolhouse at 
auction when they think proper. " In consequence they (the 
Selectmen) appointed the next Friday, the 3d day of December, at 
2 p. m., " at which time the building was sold with a few useless 
logs for about one hundred and forty-eight dollars. " My grand- 
father bought some of the bricks, which probably were put into the 
house which he was then building, and which stands today on 
Stearns road. Thus ended the old schoolhouse which had stood 
for so many years, marking the centre of the town ; the school of 
the infamous Master Adams. Miss Woods speaks of Mr. 
Ebenezer Heath planting an elm tree on the spot where the door 
of the brick school stood. 

Miss Woods has this in her " Sketches of Brookline " : — "After 
the close of the second war with England, the town began to grow 
more rapidly. Several gentlemen came here and built fine houses 
and there was a general increase of prosperity. The subject of 
building a townhouse began to be discussed, but met with con- 
siderable opposition from old citizens who thought the old school- 
house had been good enough for them and their fathers, and ought 
to suffice for the coming generations. 

" However, the more enterprising carried their point at last, so 
far as to get a vote to build a townhouse. The next thing to be 
considered was the place and the material. The brothers John 
and Lewis Tappan, and Mr. Joseph Sewall had built stone houses, 
and it was proposed to build a stone townhouse. This was op- 
posed of course, as unnecessary extravagance, by the men who 
thought the old schoolhouse was good enough. But once more 
enterprise triumphed, and the building was decided upon, as well 
as the location. This was the origin of the building known as the 
old stone schoolhouse, still standing next the Unitarian Church. " 

January I, 1825. — Saturday evening the new Town Hall was 
dedicated by prayer and sacred music. The new building with 
the Town Hall above and the District School below was now 
complete. 

January 3, 1825. — A town meeting was held, at which the town 
voted "a unanimous vote of thanks to Deacon John Robinson for 
the valuable present of a chandelier for the use of the Town Hall, 
and that the same be placed on the Town Records. " No further 
allusion to the building occurs in the town records until a 
meeting called April 27, 1834, when a committee was appointed to 
separate the land occupied by the meetinghouse from that oc- 



19 

cupied by the townhouse — the occasion being the dissolution of 
the town and parish. At that time the town owned quite a piece 
of land to the east of the town house, which was subsequently sold 
to Ignatius Sargent. 

The school at that time in the new building was, as I have said, 
one of the district schools of the town, and was used as such until 
1843, when the High School was first established. The hall was 
used as a town hall, and was also let for various purposes. I have 
heard my parents tell of singing schools, Lyceum lectures, and tem- 
perance lectures being held there; indeed, it was until 1S40, when 
Lyceum Hall in the village was built, the only room of its kind in 
the town. Miss Woods speaks of the Lyceum lectures, and of a 
prize offered by one of the citizens to the young person who could 
best commit to memory and write out one of the lectures. The 
prize was won by Miss Sarah Clark, daughter of Deacon Clark, 
and who died but a few years ago. 

The High School was organized August 17, 1843, — a rather 
singular date for beginning a school, but my earliest remem- 
brance of summer vacations was three weeks in August, and the 
above date was evidently the beginning of the fall term. 
The first master of the school was Mr. Benjamin H. Rhodes, a 
graduate of Brown University, who resigned the position after four 
years of service. He had for a time as an assistant Mr. James 
Pierce, a relative of Dr. Pierce. He was a graduate of Harvard, 
and afterwards studied for the ministry, but before he had an 
opportunity to preach his health failed him and a voyage to 
Europe was prescribed ; he died on the voyage and was buried 
at sea. Mr. Rhodes, of whom I have no recollection, had the 
respect and love of his pupils. He went from Brookline to 
assume the post of librarian of Redwood Library, Newport. 

In 1845 th^ second Town Hall was built on or near the spot oc- 
cupied by the present Hall. The dedicatory address by Dr. Pierce 
was almost a complete history of the town up to that date. The 
address was published and it is a most interesting account of the 
growth of the town. It has been frequently consulted and quoted, 
as Dr. Pierce was known far and wide as a faithful and conscien- 
tious historian. After this time the old building was used exclu- 
sively for school purposes, the girls occupying the upper story and 
the boys the lower. My first introduction to the school was in the 
spring of 1848, when having attained my eleventh birthday I was 
considered fit to enter the High School, age rather than ability 
being the test of entrance. At that time Mr. Hezekiah Shailer 
had succeeded Mr. Rhodes, and he was the master during the four 
years of my attendance there. He was a brother of Rev. William 
H. Shailer of the Baptist Church. Mr. Shailer was a believer in 



20 

the old adage, "spare the rod and spoil the child, " but he was on 
the whole a faithful, conscientious teacher, and had the respect of 
his scholars. The boys occupied the lower story, and a most dis- 
mal, damp and dark room it was. The building had no cellar and 
was placed low on the ground. The windows were small and the 
whole atmosphere of the place was depressing. The upper floor 
was occupied by the girls and was a light, cheerful room, and it 
was a great boon to the boys when the whole school gathered 
there, or when they went there to recite. 

The female teachers, as I remember them, were Miss Harding, 
who was transferred from the intermediate school ; Miss Annie 
Ware, an older sister of Mr. Charles P. Ware of this town. She 
afterwards married Dr. Frederic Winsor of Winchester, and is still 
living, a widow, in Weston. Miss Taber was another teacher. 
She was a daughter of E. Taber of Roxbury, a famous clock maker 
of the old time. We have in our house one of his tall clocks, which 
must be at least seventy-five years old and is still ticking away. 
Miss Taber died a few years ago. Miss Emily Ripley was for a 
time a teacher in the school. She married the Rev. James Reid, 
Swedenborgian minister of Boston, and is still living. 

Among the scholars were Spencer Richardson, the senior partner 
of Richardson, Hill & Co.; Roscoe Deane, a brilliant fellow, who 
studied law, but was addicted to taking morphine and died in early 
manhood; William Philbrick, a brother of Edward S. Philbrick, 
who lived in the old stone house on Walnut street ; David Wilder, 
a brother of Burt Wilder,Professor at Cornell; Edward Thayer, a son 
of Seth Thayer, who for many years kept a store in Brookline ; Walter 
Wild, a younger brother of Gen. Edward Wild ; William Ventris, 
a relative of Mr. Shailer and who lived with him while at school. 
He became a Baptist minister and married Miss Murdock, also 
a scholar of the school. He came from Connecticut and introduced 
a game called Haddam Fox : after a newly fallen snow, he would 
mark out a large circle in the adjoining field, with radii to the 
center, and he (Ventris) was the fox, and the whole school as 
hounds would chase up and down these paths, with a penalty for 
the one who cut across. 

Mr. Shailer used to open the school with prayer, kneeling down 
on the platform, resting his hands on a chair, facing the school. 
He seemed to have his eyes closed, but woe to the boy who would 
presume to take advantage of the situation ; for, the prayer ended, 
the culprit would be called forthwith to the desk to receive his 
punishment : such were his occult (i*) powers. He was paying at- 
tention while master of the school to Miss Jane Griggs, a daughter of 
Deacon Griggs, and a sister of Deacon Thomas Griggs of Washing- 
ton street, and I remember a grammatical exercise one day in which 



21 

occurred the sentence to be corrected, "Jane and I was invited," 
which caused a titter among the scholars and a blush on Mr. 
Shailer. After they were married they lived in a house on Corey 
Hill, directly behind Mr. Mitton's house, and which was pulled 
down a few years ago to make room for his stable. Mr. Shailer re- 
signed in 1853 or '54, and went to New York, where he engaged in 
the book business. He died some years ago. His death was quite 
tragic : he owned a farm in Connecticut, and while stowing away 
hay in his barn one summer's day a thunderstorm came up sud- 
denly, and the lightning struck the barn, and Mr. Shailer was in- 
stantly killed. His widow still lives in Brookline, over eighty years 
old. 

I have spoken of the rather cheerless condition of the school- 
house. It was not an architectural success, inside or out, — dull, 
gray, with no opening towards the street except a heavy solid door, 
a rather narrow window above, and a little round hole under the 
ridgepole ; it was not unlike a tomb, a resemblance which was 
heightened by the two square recessed slabs of stone on either side 
of the door, as if ready to receive a " sacred to the memory of." 

But if the schoolroom was cheerless, what shall I say about the 
recesses and the meetings before and after school. What an ideal 
playground ! The whole meetinghouse lot was ours, and indeed 
the whole neighborhood for that matter. What glorious times 
climbing the hill behind the meetinghouse : the rocks, the trees, 
the glorious sunshine and the delightful views from the hilltop 
were ours to enjoy, and in boy fashion we did enjoy them, and the 
recollection of the good times often comes back to me as I go by 
the place now. In rainy weather we had the whole range of 
horse sheds, only separated from each other by a piece of timber, 
and here was our gymnasium all ready for us, without a cent of ex- 
pense to the town. This in the summer season ; in the winter 
what grand coasts ! Often on our double-runners, beginning at 
the top of the hill beyond the church and ending on Cypress street 
where Boylston street crosses it ; no police interference forbid- 
ding coasting in the streets in those days. Directly opposite the 
school was Mr, Sumner's land. On what is now Mr. Townsend's 
lawn was a cherry tree, which he gave to the boys, — generous, and 
at the same time politic old gentleman, for no better protectors to 
his garden could be found than his loyal friends the schoolboys. 
I attended the High School four years, leaving in 1852. Mr. 
Shailer continued as teacher about a year longer. After he left, 
the school had several masters of short duration of service, and 
the morale suffered materially, and quite a number of the parents 
took their children from the school and sent them to private 
schools. In 1854 Mr. John E. Horr was appointed to the post, and 



22 

the school began at once to improve. It is not necessary that I 
should give any account of his stewardship, for it is but recently 
that he was taken from us, leaving an enviable record as a teacher 
and a citizen. 

In 1856 the High School building at the corner of Prospect and 
School streets was opened and the old building was abandoned 
for a while. Mr. Horr in his report on the occupation of the new 
schoolhouse says : " Nor are we slow to remember our improved 
facilities : we have emerged from those low-browed arches of 
stone, and from damp and darksome cells to the more genial influ- 
ences of solar light and wholesome air." 

On the 25 th of May, 1857, a new school called the South Primary 
was opened in the old building. The School Committee report 
says : " The requisite alterations in the heating plant and fixtures 
of the building have been effective : and a comfortable room meets 
all the necessities of the school for the present." There certainly 
was room enough for improvement ! 

Miss Adelaide Pope was the first teacher. She was a sister of 
Col. Albert A. Pope of bicycle and automobile fame. In the School 
Committee report of 1860-61, it reads : " Early in the year it was 
found necessary to place an assistant in the South Primary," etc., 
and Miss Ellen Hedge, a daughter of Rev. Dr. Hedge, was ap- 
pointed. The report goes on : " While on the subject of this 
school (the old stone schoolhouse on Walnut street) it is well to 
call the attention of the town to the fact that there is not a foot of 
playground belonging to it : and your committee has been 
memorialized by citizens dwelling in that neighborhood on the sub- 
ject of the great inconvenience to which they are subjected from 
this cause. It certainly is not just that the children from any part 
of the town should be forced to be a nuisance : yet from the neces- 
sity of the case they are so in this instance. Except into the street, 
they can scarcely step out of the schoolhouse without becoming 
trespassers on the property of some one." But the building con- 
tinued to be used as a primary school until 1868, when the present 
Boylston Primary schoolhouse was built. Among the teachers in 
the old building was Miss Eliza Kenrick, aunt of the Messrs. Ken- 
rick of our village. She afterwards married Capt. Asa Smith, and 
with him made several voyages around the world. In 1869 the 
building was sold to Edward Atkinson and Nathaniel G. Chapin for 
$1,000, and this terminates its ownership by the town. The build- 
ing continued to be used as a school, private of course, and a number 
of different teachers were employed. 

Mr. Atkinson, some years after, proceeded to make quite ex- 
tensive changes in the building, adding a large wooden structure 
in the rear. The size of the old hall was about doubled and was 



23 

really made quite attractive, a new chimney was built, giving cosy 
fireplaces, and the lower story of the original building used entirely 
for dressing rooms. 

Mr. Atkinson bought the place more especially for a place to 
have his own children educated, and also for an opportunity for 
others to come in, and under the care of Miss Rideoute the school 
became very popular. Miss Seamans, who afterward married Mr. 
Andrews, the architect, was Miss Rideoute's assistant ; other 
teachers were employed and the school had a large attendance. 
After Mr. Atkinson's children got beyond the school age, his in- 
terest in the building waned, and about 1887 or '88 the school- was 
closed. The old hall was now in the market for sale, and the First 
Parish, feeling it might be for their advantage to own the building 
so near its meetinghouse, bought it from Mr. Atkinson in March, 
1890. Since that time it has been known as Pierce Hall, a name 
given to it in memory of Dr. Pierce, for fifty years the minister of 
the Parish, and also a resident of the parsonage opposite. It has 
been used by the Parish for social purposes, and also by the pub- 
lic in various ways : it has been a favorite place for private 
theatricals, having a stage and dressing-rooms, and many an en- 
joyable evening has been spent there in comedies, farces and 
charades. About a year ago it was found that the sills of the build- 
ing had decayed so much as to cause a settlement of the Hall, and 
temporary props were put in during the past winter. Then came 
the project of a new parish house, and the plans adopted included 
the repairing and enlarging of the old hall. The parish house had 
just been completed and Pierce Hall nearly so, when the fire came, 
destroying the former and badly damaging the church, and the hall 
was saved only by the heroic efforts of the firemen. It has now 
been finished and is used by the Parish for Sunday services dur- 
ing the repairing of the meetinghouse. 

The hall has been practically rebuilt, excepting the original stone 
walls. It has been lengthened, giving additional seating space, the 
ceiling has been removed, and the old roof timbers encased, a new 
and commodious stage built, and an entire renewal of dressing- 
rooms, heating plant, etc. Since the Parish has owned the hall, it 
has been from time to time considered whether it were worth while 
to keep the old building standing. It has constantly required a 
considerable amount of repairs, and some members of the Parish 
have advocated tearing it down ; but now with its renovation and 
its connection with the parish house it will doubtless stand for 
many a day, and at least celebrate its one hundredth birthday, 
which is not many years distant. 

CHARLES H. STEARNS. 

Brookline, November, 1906. 



24 



THE "OLD WORCESTER TURNPIKE." 



In the summer of 1906, a few enthusiastic golfers planned a 
day's play at the Worcester Golf Club, and one beautiful summer 
morning we assembled in Village Square, Brookline. Here the 
old wooden building easterly from the Engine House, called 
"Whyte's Block," reminds us by its name that it was on this spot 
that John White of Muddy River built his house in the long ago 
days of Massachusetts Bay Colony. 

We boarded the open electric car marked " Wellesley, Natick, 
Framingham and Worcester " at almost the identical spot where, 
years ago, we would have climbed into a great, lumbering, four or 
six-horse coach. Probably in those days we would have preceded 
our departure by drinking a mug of cider or flip, or perhaps a little 
spiced wine, in the tap room of the old Punch Bowl Tavern, which 
stood on the northerly side of the square, and whose hospitable 
doors were always open under the sign of the Bowl and Lemon 
Tree. 

Until the town line was reached, just beyond Hammond street, 
the car kept the rate of speed to which we are accustomed within 
city limits, but, after reaching the open country in Newton and be- 
yond, the speed increased to express train rate and we whirled 
along smoothly and so rapidly that about two hours after leaving 
Brookline we reached the square in Worcester. 

It was a most delightful ride in the fresh morning air, through 
beautiful scenery of hill, valley and meadow, amid surroundings of 
great interest, both on account of their present significance and 
historical associations. The return trip was under the light of a 
clear, bright moon, and, if anything, was more pleasurable than the 
outward journey in the morning. The next week the same party 
took another ride in the same way as far as Framingham, where 
the day was spent at the Framingham Country Club, whose 
grounds are opposite one of the recently completed basins of the 
great Metropolitan Water Supply system, and whose club house, 
directly on the line of the car route, is the old Josiah Temple 
house, built in 1693 by Caleb Bridges, and adapted in a most 
artistic manner to its present use. 

These trips brought vividly to the writer's recollection an 
outing which he enjoyed with a schoolboy companion sometime 
in the seventies, when, with a horse and buggy, we drove from 
Brookline to Worcester, taking two days for the trip, with stop-over 
at Westborough, which was reached late in the afternoon of the 



25 

first day. After spending some weeks on a farm a few miles 
beyond Worcester, we drove back to Brookline. 

Going and coming we kept to the old turnpike road, which 
the trolley cars now follow, and, boy-like, we went prepared for 
adventures with highwaymen and possible savage beasts. But 
the journey was lacking all such excitements, and gave us only 
the experiences of a drive along a quiet, little-used, and in some 
places almost forgotten country road, narrow and grass-grown for 
long stretches, over-shadowed by the foliage of the low-bending 
trees and bordered by vines and wild flowers. 

The contrast in the manner of travelling, and the great changes 
along the road which have taken place in the last thirty years, em- 
phasize the fact that the extension and improvement of the means 
and methods of travelling are the most important factors in the 
growth and development, not only of the termini served, but of all 
the intermediate country, and every town between Worcester and 
Boston has waxed or waned in its growth and progress according 
to its facilities for transportation. 

The celebration of anniversaries teaches us history, and cen- 
tennial anniversaries certainly deserve observance. It is there- 
fore fitting at this time to attempt to tell the story of the old turn- 
pike road, which was constructed one hundred years ago under 
authority of the Massachusetts General Court, which, by Act of 
March, 1806, incorporated the proprietors of the Boston and Wor- 
cester Turnpike. The road was not known by the name of 
Boylston street until it was so named in 1841, in honor of the 
Boylston family which lived opposite the present Reservoir site 
and was prominently identified with the town's early history. 

Before the white man settled on Shawmut, as the old peninsula 
of Boston was called, the Indians had their paths or trails west- 
ward through the wilderness between the Bay and their settlements 
on the inland lakes and streams in the Connecticut Valley and 
beyond. 

When the Wabbaquassets came from what is now Woodstock, 
Connecticut, with sacks of Indian corn for the nearly starved 
colonists in the fall after Governor Winthrop arrived (1630), they 
travelled to and fro by one of their trails which no doubt had been 
frequently travelled before and was easily followed by what were 
to them well known landmarks. 

The earliest English travellers westward, so far as known, were 
John Oldham, Samuel Hall and two others who, in 1633, started 
for Connecticut to look for a good place for a new settlement, — 
as if anywhere within twenty miles of Boston was not new enough 
in 1633! 



26 

Knowing of the trail used by the Indians three years earlier, 
they followed it from Watertown, because they realized it would be 
the easiest line of travel ; would strike the fording or crossing- 
places of streams, avoid bad swamps, and, what was of equal if 
not greater importance, would take them by the Indian villages 
scattered along the route, where they could obtain food and 
lodging. 

Other pioneers started out by the same route, and little by 
little the original trail became recognized as an established line of 
travel. Followed by larger parties and by those who took their 
families, their horses and cattle, the faintly marked path became 
deeply worn and clearly defined. It was known as "the way to 
Connecticut," and the early records of grants of land in what are 
today Wayland, Sudbury, Marlborough, and other towns specify 
areas of more or less acres along the " Connecticut Path," as it 
was designated, which, after it became still more broadly marked, 
was named the "Connecticut Road." 

In what is now Wayland, formerly a part of Sudbury, the old 
path forked. The northern branch, passing through Marlborough, 
Worcester, and Brookfield, was known as the " Bay Path," and 
extended straight to the Connecticut River and the settlement of 
Agawam, now the City of Springfield. 

It would be presumption for the writer to attempt to give any 
description of these wilderness paths — the only lines of communi- 
cation for the early colonists between the widely scattered settle- 
ments, — when the description as given by J. G. Holland in his 
story of Old Agawam, under the title of "The Bay Path," is avail- 
able for quotation : 

" The principal communication with the eastern settlement was by 
a path marked by trees a portion of the distance, and by slight 
clearings of brush and thicket for the remainder. No stream was 
bridged, no hill graded, and no marsh drained. The path led 
through woods which bore the marks of centuries, over barren hills 
that had been licked by the Indians' hounds of fire, and along 
the banks of streams in which the seine had never been dragged. 
The path was known as ' the Bay Path ' or the path to the Bay, 
and received its name in the same manner as the mulitudinous 
'old Bay-roads' that lead to Boston from every quarter of Mas- 
sachusetts. It was wonderful what a powerful interest was 
attached to the Bay Path. It was the channel through which laws 
were communicated, through which flowed news from distant 
friends, and through which came loving letters and messages. It 
was the vaulted passage along which echoed the voices from 
across the ocean, and through which, like low-toned thunder, rolled 
the din of the great world. That rough thread of soil, chopped by 
the blades of a hundred streams, was a bond that radiated at each 
terminus into a thousand fibres of love and interest, and hope and 
memory. 



27 

" It was the one way left open through which the sweet tide of 
sympathy might flow. Every rod had been prayed over by friends 
on the journey and friends at home. 

" The Bay Path was charmed ground — a precious passage, — and 
during the spring, the summer and the early autumn, hardly a settler 
at Agawam went out of doors, or changed his position in the fields, 
or looked up from his labor, or rested on his paddle upon the 
bosom of the river, without turning his eyes to the point at which 
the Path opened from the brow of the wooded hill upon the east, 
where now the bell of the huge arsenal tells hourly of the coming 
of a stranger along the path of time. And when some worn and 
weary man came in sight, upon his half-starved horse, or two or 
three pedestrians, bending beneath their packs, and swinging their 
sturdy staves, were seen approaching, the village was astir from 
one end to the other. 

"And when one of the settlers started forth upon the journey to 
the Bay, with his burden of letters and messages, and his number- 
less commissions for petty purchases, the event was one well 
known to every individual, and the adventurer received the benefit 
of public prayer for the prosperity of his passage and the 
safety of his return." 

From the Massachusetts Colony records we learn that in August, 
1633, at a Court holden at Boston, " It is agreed that there shall be 
a sufficient Cart-bridge made in some convenient place over Muddy 
River," etc. 

In March, 1634, at a Court holden at Newe Towne, " It is ordered 
that Rich. Dumer and John Johnson shall build a sufficient cart- 
bridge over Muddy River before the next General Court and that 
Boston, Rocksburry, Dorchester, Newtowne and Watertown shall 
equally contribute to it." 

The charge for this bridge was £15 3s. 6d., and in 1640 it was 
thus apportioned : Boston £6, Roxbury £Sf Dorchester ;^i 7s. 8d., 
Watertown ^i 7s. iid., Cambridge £1 17s. iid. 

According to the old Boston records, March 16, 1640, " William 
Colbron and Jacob EUyott are appointed to lay out the highways 
at Muddy River towards Cambridge." This is the first reference 
to any definite road or highway in the hamlet of Muddy River. 

Miss Woods (page 308) says the highway of 1640 " was laid out 
and trees spotted along the old Indian trail as far as the falls of the 
Charles River and through Reservoir Lane to Nonantum, where 
there was an Indian Village." This was probably the local con- 
nection between the Muddy River " sufficient cart-bridge " and the 
Connecticut Path where it crossed the river at Watertown. At the 
best it did nothing but more clearly indicate the path used by the 
Indians, so that those unskilled in woodcraft could follow it with 
little or no difficulty. 

In the Boston records for 1657 we read: — 

" Notice given both to Watertown and Cambridge that they 
might depute some to joyne with ours deputed to lay out a high- 



28 

way from Muddy River to Watertown Mill, and upon the 21st of 
the 2nd month it was (by partys deputed by sd towns) performed,— 
the sd way is four rods in breadth and directed by niarkt trees." 

This was a real highway, and was what is today our Washington 
street in Brookline, and its continuation through Brighton and 
Newton to the Watertown bridge at the falls. 

Probably there was no agitation for speed regulations along this 
"four rod highway directed by marked trees"; the problems of 
sidewalks and street watering bothered nobody ; but the associa- 
tion for good roads must have been an active force, because we 
read in 1661, " It is ordered yt ye surveyors att Muddy River shall 
forthwyth repayre ye highway to Watertown Mill which is 
defective." 

From this time on this road was used by all those travelling east 
or west between Roxbury, Dorchester or Boston and Watertown or 
beyond to Worcester, and gradually became recognized as the 
principal highway by the different towns through which it passed 
and in which it was known as the "Connecticut Road." 

In 1643 the Sudbury records designate it as the highway from 
Watertown to Mr. Dunster's farm and as such it was formally laid 
out in 1649. ^^ '^74 Framingham laid out the old path or road as 
the highway to Nobscot and beyond, and a new cart bridge was 
built across the Sudbury River to take the place of the old horse 
bridge, v/hich was ever afterwards known as the " New Bridge." 

With the growth of the Colony the travel in both directions grew 
heavier and heavier, and in the progress of time what had been a 
path through forest and across clearing, faintly traced by the soft 
moccasins of the Indians, developed into what was termed " The 
King's Highway." After the Revolution, it lost its royal title, and 
is commonly referred to in the records as " the great road " or 
the " post road from New York to Boston." 

Perhaps the best reference to the ancient highway can be quoted 
from Bond's History of Watertown :— 

"The road extending westward from the Mill was at first some- 
times called the country road, but it has been much more commonly 
known as the Sudbury road since the planting of that town (1639). 
It was the country road and it is often designated as such in deed, 
inventories, etc. It is now Main street and retains this name 
through Waltham to Weston. It is said that for a long time there 
was more travel on it than any road in the colonies. It was the 
great thoroughfare from Boston and its vicinity, passing over 
Boston Neck through Roxbury, Brookline, New Cambridge (New^- 
ton), and over Mill Bridge ;— thence westward through Watertown, 
Waltham, Weston to the western part of the Colony, to Connecticut, 
New York and the Southern Colonies. Some of this travel was 



29 

diverted by the building of the Cambridge bridge, and still more 
by the ' Worcester Turnpike.' " 

As a necessity supplied creates another want, so the development 
of the old road by constant travel in both directions created the 
demand for stopping places at convenient points, where refresh- 
ment and lodging for man and beast could be obtained. The 
" ordinary " of colonial days, as it was then called, and the " tavern" 
of later periods, supplied the wants of travellers from Boston to all 
outlying points and distant places. 

Many an interesting anecdote or story could be told of the part 
the old taverns along the great road to Worcester played in local 
history, in the early Indian Wars, and later in the Revolutionary 
period, to say nothing of their facilities and furnishings as places 
of entertainment for the ordinary traveller. 

Some of the early laws regulating the old inns, ordinaries or 
taverns, make interesting reading today. To mention only a few 
particulars : — the law provided that "all public houses shall be on 
or near the high streets, roads and places of great resort" ; inn- 
holders were required to be furnished with suitable provisions for 
the refreshment and entertainment of strangers and travellers, 
pasturing, stableroom, hay and provender for horses, on pain of 
being deprived of their license ; and " no licensed person shall sell 
oats for more than one penny the quart " ; taverners were forbidden 
to have or keep in or about their houses, out-houses, yards, gardens 
or places to them belonging, any dice, cards, tables, bowls, shuffle- 
board, billiards, coyts, cales, logats or any other implements used in 
gaming. 

Apprentices, servants or negroes were not allowed to have any 
manner of drink except with their master's special order, and no 
inhabitant of the town where the inn was located, or from any 
other town, except travellers or persons upon business or extra- 
ordinary occasions, was to be permitted to sit drinking or tippling 
for more than the space of one hour. Taverners were strictly for- 
bidden to entertain Pedlars, particularly if they were selling indigo 
or feathers, and no drinking or tippling was to be permitted after 
nine o'clock in the night. Singing, fiddling, piping or any other 
Musick, dancing or revelling were not by law to be suffered or 
exercised in any tavern. If the Inn-holder saw fit to give credit, 
the law passed in 1726 said that all above ten shillings should be 
forfeited, and action to recover any such debt was barred. All 
these and many more regulations were intended to carry out the 
declaration of the law-makers of long ago, — that, " Forasmuch as 
the ancient, true and principal use of inns, taverns, ale-houses, 
victualling houses and other houses for common entertainment, is 
for the Receipt, relief and lodging of travellers and strangers and 



the refreshment of persons upon lawful business, or for the neces- 
sary supply of the wants of such poor persons as are not able by 
greater quantities to make their provision of victuals and are not 
intended for the entertainment of lewd or idle people to spend or 
consume their money or time there, — therefore, " Be it enacted* 
etc." 

Each tavern or inn was also required to have a sign affixed to 
the house or in some conspicuous place near the same, and if for 
any reason the license was revoked then the sign should at once be 
taken down. 

The tavern was usually the only public place in town — except 
the meeting house on the days of worship — where the people were 
accustomed to congregate. Therefore the publishment board, the 
pillory, the stocks, and all other features of public interest centered 
about the tavern. If any amusement came into town or was 
arranged for by local citizens, it was at or near the tavern if pos- 
sible. For example, this advertisement appeared in the Boston 
Evening Post of January ii, 1773 : — 

" This is to give notice that there will be a Bear and a number 
of turkeys set up as a mark next Thursday Beforenoon at the 
Punch Bowl Tavern in Brookline." 

There were two other taverns in Brookline, besides the Punch 
Bowl. Dana's Tavern stood facing the present Plarvard square, 
approximately where Rhodes Brothers' store now is. It was 
burned in 181 6 (Woods, p. 49-51). Richards Tavern, or Richards 
Hotel, as it was sometimes called, was built by Elhanan Win- 
chester, Sr., father of the famous preacher, about 1770, with the 
assistance of his brethren of the "New Lights," as they were 
called. It was a large house and had a good-sized hall or room 
for their meetings. The house passed through the possession of 
Ebenezer and Joseph White to Ebenezer Richards, who kept it as 
a public house. It faced Heath street, near where Hammond 
street now crosses. The Worcester turn-pike passed close by 
and just to the rear of the house, where was located one of the 
turnpike gates with the toll house for the gate-keeper. 

It continued as a tavern until about 1830. It then passed to 
Henry Pettes of Boston, and afterwards was owned by Mark W, 
Sheafe of Portsmouth. As the Sheafe House it is shown on the 
town map of 1844 and 1855. The old house is still standing, and a 
photograph taken in 1904 accompanies this paper. 

Miss Woods gives quite a full account of the old Punch Bowl 
Tavern, which was kept as a public house from previous to 1740 to 
1839. The Brookline Selectmen held their meetings either at 
Dana's or the Punch Bowl. The Town Treasurer's cash book 
shows that from 1787 to 1800 the patronage was given Dana. After 



31 

William Laughton became the landlord at the runch Bowl in iSoo 
or 1801, he evidently secured the business. Payments were 
usually made annually for the previous year's meetings. 
To quote several entries in the cash book : — 

May 14, 1799 — P<^- Jonathan Dana pr order Jan. 1799 ^^^ enter- 
taining the Selectmen from 28 December 1797 
to the 4th December 1798 — Fifteen meetings 
i:i8.25. 

1800 — Pd. Jonathan Dana for entertaining the Select- 
men while transacting the Business of the 
town at his house from 3d Jan. 1799 to 7th 
March 1800, ;^5.3.9. 

1803— To cash pd the Selectmens expenses at Mr. Laugh- 
ton's Tavern for one year endg March 1803 — 
$11.42. 

It must have been a busy place in front of the old tavern in 
Punch Bowl Village with all the through travel from the towns to the 
west. We can imagine the crowd of the idle, the curious, the news- 
gatherers and those with some definite purpose gathered about 
the tavern, in tap room and on the benches outside, watching for 
what was the event of the day, the coming, stopping and driving 
away of the New York stages. 

But we must leave the old taverns, which were hospitable and 
comfortable, with their landlords, who- were the newsmongers of 
the community, and, in many cases, the most prominent and 
influential men in the town, and get back to the road from Boston 
to Worcester. 

By this time more or less regular communication had been estab- 
lished. Post riders first travelled the road on horseback with the 
mail stowed in their saddlebags, and the post riders were in turn 
succeeded by mail and stagecoaches. 

Lincoln's History of Worcester, published in 1836, tells the story 
quite completely, from which the following abstracts are taken : — 

Prior to 1755 a letter from Boston to Philadelphia took three 
weeks. In that year (1755) great reforms accelerated the speed, so 
that only fifteen days were required. The first stage line was 
advertised in the Boston Evening Post, July 6, 1772, as from New 
York to Boston by J. & N. Brown, whose announcement read, 
" Gentlemen and ladies who choose this new, useful and expensive 
undertaking may depend upon good usage and that the coach will 
always put up at houses on the road where the best entertainment 
is provided."' These coaches were scheduled to take thirteen days 
from New York to Boston. 

But the line of the Messrs. Brown did not continue until the 
Revolution. In 1774 there was a post once a week between 



32 

Hartford and Boston, through Worcester, by post riders who took 
six days for the trip. 

In 1783 was established the first stage line which succeeded and 
continued until the days of railroads. 

Levi Pease and Reuben Sikes, then of Somers, Ct., and Suffield, 
Ct., respectively, began business October 20, 1783, and announced 
that they had furnished themselves " with two convenient wagons." 
One of these wagons left Boston at the " Sign of the Lamb " every 
Monday morning, stopped for the night at Martin's in North- 
borough, and the next day passed through Worcester and so 
beyond to Hartford, taking four days for the trip. The other 
wagon left Hartford for Boston at the same time and stopped at 
the same taverns en route. Passengers were carried at 4d. per 
mile. After a discouraging beginning, the line soon grew popular 
and profitable, and the proprietors did their best to please the 
public by increasing the speed and giving more accommodations. 
In 1786 the running time in summer had been reduced so much 
that a traveller could leave Boston Monday morning and reach 
New York the following Thursday evening, so that, as the adver- 
tisement reads, "by this unparalleled speed, a merchant may go 
from Boston to New York and return again in less than ten days, 
which is truly wonderful," and adds further for the information of 
the travelling public, "it is the most convenient and expeditious 
way of travelling that can be had in America, and in order to 
render it the cheapest, the price is lowered from 4d. to 3d. per 
mile, with liberties to passengers to take 14 pounds of baggage." 

With the steady and profitable growth of their business. Pease 
and Sikes constantly improved their equipment from the " con- 
venient wagon " with its pair of half-starved horses, to the palatial 
(Concord) stage coach with its great leather braces and springs, 
with seats inside and out, its team of four or six powerful and 
well-fed roadsters, all of which, together with improvements in the 
way of better roads, left nothing to be desired in the way of travel- 
ling facilities ; or, to use the exact words of the historian of 1836, 
"the speed of travelling and its facilities were increased almost 
beyond measure." 

For over one hundred and fifty years the " great road " was the 
trunk line to Worcester, but the zenith of its glory was reached 
just one hundred years ago, when, so far as " rapid transit " was 
concerned, it was rendered quite out of date by the building of the 
Worcester Turnpike in 1806 and 1807. 

It was supposed that this turnpike would give the maximum 
speed in the minimum time because it was laid out on the simple 
mathematical principle that a straight line is the shortest distance 
between two points. The turnpike engineers paid little attention 



33 

to grades, and seemingly forgot that the actual distance travelled 
may be as long over a hill as around its base, to say nothing of the 
greater effort to the traveller climbing up one side and holding 
back when going down on the other. 

Turnpikes had been built in other states and in various parts of 
Massachusetts before the Worcester Turnpike was proposed. The 
first one in the country, it is believed, was from Alexandria, 
Virginia, to the lower Shenandoah. In Massachusetts, the Act of 
June II, 1796, incorporated a turnpike from Western (now Warren) 
to Scott's Tavern in Palmer, and in the following decade the 
General Court passed many acts incorporating turnpikes in 
different parts of the state. During this period each incorporation 
was authorized by a special act which detailed the conditions of 
laying out, the rates of toll and all other particulars. 

In 1805, Chapter 125 was passed, which was entitled "An Act 
defining the general Powers and Duties of Turnpike Corpora- 
tions,'' and when the Worcester Turnpike was incorporated the 
following year (1806), it was under the provisions of this general act. 

The principal provisions of this act required the route proposed 
for any turnpike to be viewed by a committee at the expense of the 
petitioners — perhap'S an old-time junket, — public notice of the 
proposed route had to be advertised in the county papers ; the 
corporation was liable for land damages, but was given authority to 
purchase and hold lands over which to make the road. Every such 
road had to be not less than four rods wide and the travelled part 
of same not less than twenty-five feet in any part. No gate could 
be erected on any county or town road previously established, and 
no gates on the turnpike itself where full toll was demanded 
could be erected, except said gate was ten miles distant from any 
other turnpike gate on the same road, unless otherwise speciijcally 
provided. 

The proprietors were authorized to demand and receive at gates 
where full rates were charged, the following tolls : — 

For each coach, chariot, phaeton or other four-wheel spring car- 
riage drawn by two horses — 25c., and 2c. for each additional horse. 

For every wagon drawn by two horses — loc, and 2c. for each 
additional horse. 

For every cart or wagon drawn by two oxen — loc. and if by more 
than two, 12 i-2c. 

For every curricle — 15c. 

For every chaise, chair, sulkey, or other carriage for pleasure, 
drawn by one horse — 12 i-2c. 

For every cart, wagon or truck drawn by one horse — 6 1-4C. 
each. 

For every man and horse — 4c. 

For every sleigh or sled drawn by two oxen or horses — 8c., and 
ic. for each additional ox or horse. 



34 

For all horses, mules or neat cattle led or driven besides those in 
teams or carriages — ic. each. 

Swine or sheep — 3c. by the dozen. 

In case the carts or wagons had wheels with fellies or tires six 
inches broad or more, the rates were half what otherwise would be 
charged. 

Certain exemptions were made by which no tolls could be 
demanded from foot travellers ; from those driving to or from their 
usual place of public worship; from those passing on military 
duty ; or from those living in the town where the gate was located, 
unless they were going beyond the limits of the town : and one 
could also go without charge to and from the grist mill, or on the 
common and ordinary business of family concerns. 

The proprietors were not entitled to demand toll at any gate 
unless there was erected in some conspicuous place, exposed to 
view, a signboard with the rates of toll fairly and legibly written 
or printed in capital letters. 

The earliest map of Brookline, drawn in 1728 to find the center 
of the town, so as to locate the schoolhouse, shows only the Cam- 
bridge road, the Newton road (Watertown) and the Sherburn road. 
Of the three, the last is generally believed to be the oldest, dating 
from as early as 1640, when laid out by Eliot and Colbron. 

In June, 1658, a highway was laid out "through land of Jno. 
White att Muddy River and so by Thos. Gardners land to the farm 
of Isaac Stedman," and later in the same year Ensign Jno. Hull, 
Jos. Cotton, Mr. Jacob Sheafe, Thos. Lake and Wm. Davis de- 
clared it to be the town's highway and further that " ye other way 
in ye law is hereby relinquished." This 1658 laying out was the 
old Sherburn Road, and took the place of the highway of 1640 
which preceeded it, although probably on the same general lines. 
The Sherburn road is frequently referred to later as the "old road." 
Jno. White's land was in our present Village Square and 
westerly. Thomas Gardner's land was where is now the corner of 
Boylston street and Sumner road, and in 1806 was the property of 
Benjamin Goddard. Isaac Stedman's farm was at the corner of 
Heath and Hammond streets, and later was owned by Elhanan 
Winchester and Ebenezer Richards. 

Jackson's History of Newton mentions the existence of this road 
from Boston (Brookline) bounds through the farms of Wiswall and 
Haynes and other small plots to the wading place across the 
Charles River at the Upper Falls, as early as 1671, and on the map 
showing Newton in 1700, this road is marked as the " Sherborn and 
Boston Road." 

In the Brookline records of 1713 and 1715, it was called the 
" roadway leading to Roxbury," and also " the Country road that 



35 

leadeth from Roxbury to Newton through Brookline along by 
Leftenant Gardner's House." 

Chapter 67, Massachusetts Acts of 1806, incorporated the Wor- 
cester Turnpike and authorized Aaron Davis, Luther Richardson, 
Samuel Wells, Charles Davis and William H. Sumner, Esquire, to 
lay out a turnpike from Roxbury to Worcester, " commencing at or 
near Roxbury street and running near the house of Stephen Hig- 
ginson, Jr., in Brookline, thence near Mitchell's Tavern in Newton, 
thence crossing Charles River near General Elliott's Mills and 
running near the house of Enoch Fiske in Needham (this part of 
Needham is now Wellesley), thence to the Neck of the Ponds, so 
called, in Natick ; thence near the house of Jonathan Rugg in 
Framingham; thence near the house of Deacon Chamberlain in 
Southborough ; thence near Furbush's Tavern in Westborough ; 
thence near the house of Jonathan Harrington in Shrewsbury ; 
thence crossing Shrewsbury pond and running north of Bladder 
pond to the street in Worcester near the Court House ; with power 
to erect four toll gates thereon, at such places, not being on any 
old road, as the committee appointed by the Act shall determine." 

In the records of the Court of Common Pleas for Norfolk 
County is the report of Bezabeel Taft, Nicholas Tillinghast and 
Silas Robinson, the committee under the Act of Incorporation to 
lay out the Worcester Turnpike. This report is technical, full of 
references to stakes, and piles of stones, small oaks or crotched 
apple trees, but lacks — what would be of greatest interest today — 
the names of the owners of the lands through which it was laid out, 
except in a few instances. 

Until 1844, that part of Brookline between Pearl street and the 
Parkway belonged to the town of Roxbury. This portion of the 
old road, and as far as the Newton line, is described as follows, 
omitting the technicalities : — 

Beginning with the paved street near the brick school house in 
Roxbury we located said Turnpike over the old road, — the same 
being four rods wide, till it comes to the easterly end of Ebenezer 
Crafts' faced wall in front of his dwelling house, and on the 
southerly side of said road, thence ***** by William Wyman's 
land to A stake near the S. E. corner of an old dwelling house, 
thence to a stake at the easterly side of said Wyman's front yard, 
near the south east corner of said yard, thence through the said 
Wyman's front yard and out at the westerly side thereof near a 
small elm tree; then on the old road by the Punch Bowl Tavern in 
said Roxbury and Brookline and to the northeasterly corner of the 
dwelling house and store of Thomas White on the southerly side of 
said turnpike road ; then from said corner to a heap of stones on 
Walley's Hill, thence by " various stakes and stones " by Col. 
Hammond's land to a bound where the location of said turnpike 
road commences at the town of Newton in the count)' of Middle- 
sex, etc. 



36 

From a study of the old valuation and tax lists of Brookline from 
1796 to 1808, the following were probably those from whom land 
was taken when the Turnpike was laid out : — 

Thomas White, White and Sumner, Eliphalet Spurr, George W. 
Stearns, Samuel Slack, Widow Elizabeth Davis, Thomas Walley, 
Samuel Clark, Widow Partridge, John Goddard, Benjamin God- 
dard (no poll in 1809), David Hyslop, Esq., John Lucas, Esq., 
William Ackers, Ebenezer Heath, Jonathan Mason, Esq., Ben- 
jamin White, Ebenezer Richards and Jonathan Hammond. 

The Turnpike location followed the "old road" from the brick 
schoolhouse in Roxbury to the Punch Bowl Tavern, but after the 
committee had stopped and refreshed themselves for awhile with 
Landlord Laughton they must have become decidedly optimistic, 
for they paid no further attention to the "old road" which had 
served the public for a hundred and fifty years between Boston 
and the Upper Falls in Newton. 

They paid attention to nothing but the compass, and, standing 
under the sign of the Lemon Tree and Punch Bowl, they laid the 
line a few degrees south of west and began to drive stakes and run 
lines straight away for Richards' Tavern, regardless of the steep 
grades over Walley's Hill. 

As they began to climb the slope of this hill, they crossed the 
"New Lane," as it was called (now Cypress street), which was 
laid out in 1720 and 1721, as " a way for the North End inhabitants 
to go to the meeting house." On the other side of the hill they 
struck the old Sherburn road in front of Benjamin Goddard's land 
and absorbed it into the turnpike as far as Ackers corner, in accor- 
dance with the written agreement made with the town. At Ackers 
corner the old road was abandoned again, as the compass pointed 
straight for the high hill belonging to the Hon. Jonathan Mason, 
(now Lyman's Hill,) and to go aroufid instead of overz. hill was not 
to be thought of. From Ackers corner the road to Little Cambridge 
(now Chestnut Hill avenue) had been staked out in 1796 over lands 
of John Lucas and Isaac S. Gardner. 

Down grade from Mason's Hill, the pike soon came in sight of 
Richards' Tavern, which stood facing the old Sherburn road. At 
this point there branched to the right an old highway, which long 
before 1700 extended through the lands of Vincent Druce and 
various members of the Hammond family towards Watertown. 
This old highway, which was called Cross street in the Brookline 
records and map of 1844, has been known as Hammond street 
since 1855. 

With fresh courage imbibed with the hospitable welcome of 
Landlord Richards, who foresaw the great prospective increase to 
the patronage of his house, and with his words of encouragement 



37 

to urge them on, the committee took another look at their com- 
passes and started into the thick woods, across the swamps 
near the great pond belonging to Col. Hammond, over hills and 
through meadows straight for the river at the point where the 
Indian fish weirs and wading places existed before ever Boston 
was settled, and to which the Sherburn road came by a more 
circuitous route. 

Drake's Roxbury (page 304) says : — 

" Roxbury street, laid out in 1652, was in 1663 described as ' the 
highway from the upper end of the lane towards the meetinghouse, 
and so down by the old mill and so forward to Muddy River.' It 
was also called the highway to Dedham, then the Cambridge Road, 
afterwards the Worcester Turnpike, and later as Washington and 
Tremont streets." 

This portion of the original laying out was discontinued as a 
turnpike by Chapter 76, Acts of 1826 (Feb. 15, 1826), which pro- 
vided — " That from and after the passage of this Act, so much of 
the location of the Worcester Turnpike as was over the old road, 
or ancient highway, in the town of Roxbury, be discontinued and 
annulled ; and that the easterly end of said turnpike shall hereafter 
be at the arch, in Brookline, where said turnpike leaves the ancient 
highway ; provided the said turnpike corporation pay to the town 
of Roxbury the sum of $250.00 on or before the first day of May 
next." The Arch in Brookline " where said Turnpike leaves the 
ancient highway," stood at where now is Burns' blacksmith shop, 
at the corner of Washington, High and Boylston streets. 

Referring to the points specified in the legislative act which 
authorized the turnpike laying out : — 

Stephen ffigginson, /r.''s, house was on Heath street, near the 
corner of Pound lane. His father gave the bell when the new 
meeting house was built in 1806. 

Mitchell's Tavern in Newton was located at the present junction 
of Centre and Boylston streets in Newton Highlands. The land- 
lord was Edward Mitchell, who went from Brookline and kept this 
tavern which had formerly been owned by Lieut, John Marean 
(d. 17S8), who probably was of the old family who lived both sides 
of the line between Brookline and Newton in the early days. 

General EUiotfs Mills. (From Smith's History of Newton.) 

In 1768 Simon Elliott, a tobacconist of Boston, purchased about 
35 acres of land with dwelling house, barn, malt house, and the 
saw-mill, fulling-mill, grist mill, and eel-weir, which were already 
established. He erected snuff mills in addition to the other in- 
dustries and it is said "that the business carried on here in the 
manufacture of snuff and tobacco was the most extensive in that 
line in New England." 



38 

Elliott's son, Simon, a Major-General in the Militia of Suffolk 
County, (who died in 1810,) was very active in the business in New- 
ton and hence the name — "General Elliott's Mills." In 18 14, the 
property, including screw factory, wire mill, four snuff mills, 
annealing shop, etc., was sold to the " Elliott Mfg. Co." In 1799, 
the Newton Iron Works Company purchased from Bixby, who 
owned just below the falls, and erected a rolling mill in 1800. In 
1809, a new factory was added to manufacture cut nails, and 
this building was afterwards used as a paper mill. In 1813, a 3000- 
spindle cotton mill was built, which was burned in 1850. 

In 1809, the Worcester Turnpike passed directly by the nail and 
rolling mill, bridging the river at that point. 

Forbush's Tavern. (From History of Worcester County, 1889.) 

Very early in its history we find references to various inns and 
taverns in Westborough. The house now standing near the corner 
of the Turnpike and Lyman street, the old Forbush Tavern, seems 
to have been the first one which in any sense was like our ideas of 
a tavern. This was already built when the turnpike was run so 
near it that it was almost at the door, and was immediately utilized 
as a place to change horses, rest and feed passengers, get and 
deliver mails. The stages with their two, four or six horses and 
rumbling wheels rushed up and down the steep hills. The usual 
number of passengers in one of these coaches was four and the 
fare, Boston to Worcester, was $2.00. 

The Neck of the Ponds in Natick means Lake Cochituate, 

(From Temple's History of Framingham.) "This pond (Cochi- 
tuate) originally presented the appearance of two bodies of water 
united by a narrow strait. This strait was an Indian fording place 
and fishing place, and by dumping in large quantities of small 
stones the early settlers made a passable roadway." From this 
lake, which took its name from the Indian village located on it, 
the water was taken for the supply of Boston in 1846. 

Shrewsbury Pond \\z.s what was later named LakeQuinsigamond. 

The other places and persons mentioned in the laying out were 
all well known in their day, and are referred to in the local histories 
of the respective towns. 

The first meeting of the incorporators of the turnpike was held 
October 30, 1806, at Concert Hall in Boston, east corner of Court 
and Hanover streets. The stock consisted of six hundred shares 
of the par value of $250 — a small amount of money to build forty 
miles of road. 

The building of an air line road from Boston to Worcester 
brought a new era to all the country tributary to it, and what it 
meant to the towns along the line is well told by a few quotations 
from some of the local histories. 



39 

From Lincoln's History of Worcester (1836) : — 

" Tlie Turnpike to Boston going out from tlie north end of the 
village went through a considerable eminence by a deep cutting, 
passed a deep valley on a lofty embankment, ascended the steep 
slope of Millstone Hill, crossed Quinsigamond on a floating 
bridge,* and climbed to some of the highest elevations of the 
country it traversed, when inconsiderable circuit would have given 
a better and less costly route. These undertakings (turnpikes), of 
great convenience and utility in the period of their construction, 
have been more beneficial to the public than the proprietors." 

From Temple's Framingham : — 

" The old stage road between Worcester and Boston was via 
Northboro', Marlboro', So. Sudbury, Weston, Waltham. The new 
road (The Worcester Turnpike) considerably shortened the dis- 
tance between Boston and Worcester. The steep hills kept off 
the teaming of heavy merchandise, but a stage route was at once 
established, and as Framingham was the central point for chang- 
ing horses and making repairs, it gave a great impetus to local 
business. The through travel rapidly increased — and the prompt- 
ness of the service made this the favorite route, so that for a long 
term of years not less than seventeen stages passed through this 
town (Framingham) daily. From 1810 to 1835, the stageman's 
horn was a signal as common and well known as the engineer's 
whistle of today." 

From the History of Westborough : — 

" An event that was for a time of great importance was the 
building of the Boston and Worcester Turnpike. It took its course, 
like all the turnpikes of that period, in a bee line towards its point 
of destination, passing over all the hills and scorning all the 
obstacles. Its coming made the era of the stage coach and way- 
side inn. Scores of coaches used to rattle by in a single day along 
the great through line, and the bustle and excitement at the part- 
ing places was great. It brought the outside world with all its 
news and budgets past the little towns that had lived without it so 
long." 

The morals of the community one hundred years ago, so far as 
honesty goes, were no better than they are in the present genera- 
tion. We often think we have made a great saving if in some 
way we are overlooked when the conductor collects the fares in a 
crowded car, and few of us, I fear, put ourselves out to see that 
the railway company gets every nickel to which it is entitled. 
Human nature is much the same in all generations, and the law 
passed in 1809 (Chap. 71), is sufficient commentary on the tendency 
of the church-going New Englander in the first years of the last 
century. 

"Whereas the Worcester Turnpike road as the same is now 
located and made, makes such intersections of various old roads, 
over which the same crosses and passes, as to render it easy at all 



* The floating bridge crossing Lake Quinsigamond sank on September 19, 1817, and 
it was soon after replaced by a more substantial structure. 



40 

times for persons to travel on the same a greater part of the way, 
and by turning off on said old roads, near the several places 
assigned to receive toll, to avoid the payment of the same ; and 
whereas there are several portions of said turnpike road, over 
which there would be great travel, provided the said corporation 
were authorized to erect gates subdividing the toll established in 
and by their act of incorporation, which would be a great saving 
and convenience to many people who wish to travel on certain 
portions of said turnpike if it could be done without paying full 
fare .... Be it enacted," etc. 

By which authority was given for such sub-division of toll, with 
the necessary gates and signs, but no more toll could be taken in 
the whole, on any ten miles, than provided by the original act. 

Although of great benefit to the travelling public, the Worcester 
turnpike did not prove a profitable enterprise to its proprietors, 
even with sub-divided tolls. It paid few dividends, never six per 
cent, and finally the whole capital involved was totally lost. After 
it had been travelled for say twenty 3'ears, it probably was not in 
the best of condition, for, at the town meeting in Brookline, March 
5, 1827, Benjamin Goddard, Ebenezer Heath, and Elisha Penni- 
man were appointed a committee to see that the contract between 
the town and the turnpike corporation was at all times fulfilled, 
and that the road generally, so far as it passed through Brookline, 
was kept in repair ; and the said committee were given authority 
to prosecute for any breach of contract. 

According to the County Commissioner's Records of 1832, a 
committee authorized by a legal meeting of the turnpike corpora- 
tion petitioned " that that part of said turnpike between Kimball 
Tavern in Needham and the Punch Bowl Tavern in Brookline be 
laid out and established as a common and public highway, — that 
the incorporators were desirous of abandoning and relinquishing 
their franchise in that part of the turnpike road. " 

The Commissioners held several meetings at the Punch Bowl 
Tavern for the purpose of hearing all those interested, and viewing 
the location. At the meeting January 8, 1833, there was not a 
quorum and on March 6, 1833, no business was done because 
" the roads were so blocked with snow as rendered the location of 
said road difficult or impracticable. " 

Finally, on April g, 1833, the Commissioners did adjudge that 
" common convenience and necessity require that the road 
should be laid out and established as a public and common high- 
way, " etc. 

" Beginning at the northeasterly corner of the house and store 
formerly occupied by Thomas White and now occupied by George 
W. Stearns, the line runs 17 rods to a heap of stones in land of 
said Stearns ; thence 201 rods 1 1 links to a heap of stones on 



41 

Walley Hill; thence 31 rods to beginning of land of Benj. 
Goddard and so on to the intersection of a town road near the 
house of Ebenezer Heath, Esq." Beyond that point the abuttors 
mentioned are Ebenezer Guild, Esq., Ebenezer Richards, Jr., and 
Ebenezer Richards, Senior, at the boundary line between Brookline 
and Newton. 

Except through the home lot of Benjamin Goddard, where it 
was " contracted to thirty feet as the side walls and fences now 
stand, " the road was laid out four rods wide, and the description 
sets forth specifically that the lines, courses and width of the road 
as laid out " correspond exactly with the lines, courses and width 
of the Worcester turnpike within the said termini, excepting 
through the land of said Goddard." 

Brookline objected to this proposed laying out. The town did 
not fancy the idea of being burdened with the expense of keeping 
the road in good condition, to say nothing of the great amount of 
repairs which the committee of that day reported as absolutely 
necessary. As a result of this objection, after conferences and 
consultations a written agreement was made between the town 
and the turnpike corporation, whereby the latter was to pay $500 
to be used in making the necessary repairs, and on these terms the 
town no longer opposed the laying out.* 

At the Brookline town meeting of March, 1837, the Highway ap- 
propriation was divided among the different highway districts. 
The Worcester turnpike from Newton line to the Brighton road 
near William Ackers' house was allowed nine per cent, and from 
said Brighton road to the eastern end sixteen per cent annually, or 
twenty-five per cent from the Village to Newton line. 

Votes passed at the March meeting in 1838 throw a side light on 
the tendency of human nature to get all that it can for its own, 
even if it comes to boldly appropriating land for private purposes 
by* fencing in the public highway. 

" Whereas there are parts of the Turnpike road so called which 
are encroached upon by fences within the lines of said road as 
located by the Commissioners, and in some places where the 
travelling part would not be essentially injured with proper re- 
strictions, — It is therefore Voted that the Selectmen be directed 
to remove all fences and other obstructions that now exist or may 
hereafter exist within the lines aforesaid, excepting where a railing 
is necessary for the security of Travellers, — in those cases, where 
the use of the lands between said railings and the lands adjoining 
may be of benefit to the owners of said lands, in such cases the 
Selectmen are Authorized and requested to grant license to said 
Owners to Occupy said lands, provided they will enter into a 
written agreement to erect such a railing where it is not already 

*The original manuscripts of the agreement, the report of the committee and the 
notification of the County Commissioners' hearing are in the Town Clerk's Office. 



42 

erected and keep the same in repair and also to keep in repair any 
railing which is already erected. " 

If these conditions were not observed, the Selectmen were to 
revoke the license and remove fences. 

In 1839, a petition was presented to the County Commissioners 
by Jabez Fisher, 2d, and others, for certain changes in the side 
lines of the street near the lands of Benjamin Goddard, where, in 
1833, the width was contracted to 30 feet. 

Certain exchanges of land were made so as to straighten the 
line, as a result of which a strip on the southerly side of the road 
was discontinued — 8 1-4 feet wide and 98 1-3 rods long, from the 
land of Thomas W. Sumner to the New Lane, so called. 

In 1841, the proprietors of the turnpike petitioned to surrender 
their charter, and Chapter 62 of the Acts of 1841 accepted their 
petition, whereby after September ist of that year all the turnpike 
road except such portions as had been laid out as town or county 
highways was discontinued, and the turnpike corporation formally 
discharged from all liability. The same act provided for a con- 
tinuation of tolls over Long Pond Bridge (Lake Quinsigamond) 
provided it should be laid out as a highway by the towns of 
Shrewsbury and Worcester. 

In the same year (1841), at the March town meeting a committee 
was appointed to name the streets and avenues in Brookline. The 
description and names of those at the time connected with the 
turnpike road were as follows : — 

Road from Roxbury to Brighton — Washington street. 
Washington street to Mr. Fisher's corner — Cypress street. 
Worcester turnpike — Boylston street. 
From Post Office by Dr. Pierce's Church to Boylston street — 

Walnut street. 
From Worcester turnpike or Boylston street by Mr. Heath's to 

Newton line — Heath street. 
Heath street to Boylston street by Mr. Penniman's — Pound 

street. 

The description of Boylston street by Deacon Elijah F. Wood- 
ward of Newton, who completed the survey and made the drawings 
for the new town map in 1844, gives the following names of princi- 
pal abuttors, and locates them very accurately. 
Boylston Street. (1844.) 

Rods 
From Newton line to the house of T. W. Wellington . 56 1-2 

thence to J. Clark's 68 

to J. W. and S. Warren's 204 

to Gen. Lyman's avenue 8 

to Mrs. Penniman's 27 

to Guide Post, junction of Heath and Boylston streets 59 1-2 

423 



43 

Rods 

From Guide Post to Acker's gate 12 

to Hammond's avenue 17 

to Hayden's gate 46 

to Perkin's do 59 

to Goddard's brook 20 



From Brook to B. Goddard's lower gate 33 

to F. Gerry's 18 

to centre Cypress street 75 



154 



126 



From C. street to Dr. Shurtleff' s 36 2-5 

to Artemas Newell's 26 3-5 

to Thomas Kendall's . 3 

to Hay scales 78 

to Elm tree near junction of Boylston and Walnut 

streets 83-5 

152 3-5 
Total S55 3-5 

The total length of Boylston street was a little more than one- 
sixth of the total length of all the streets in the town supported at 
public expense. 

The name of what previously had been called Walley's Hill was 
changed about 1845. I^i that year Nathaniel Pulsifer requested 
the lowering of the road where it crosses " Bradley's Hill." The 
town acknowledged by vote that " an improvement of the roads in 
any part of the town is always a public benefit ", and gave permis- 
sion to Pulsifer and his associates to lower the road in the place 
described in his petition, provided the expense was defrayed by 
subscription, and the work was done under the direction and super- 
vision of the Selectmen. The new name was given to the Hill out 
of respect to Capt. Benjamin Bradley, sexton, constable, collector 
of taxes, and in many ways a picturesque character, who ruled over 
the heterogeneous collection of little old wooden houses which he 
built on the hill, and which were removed about 1870. 

During the period from 1833 to 1870 there were many changes 
in Brookline along the line of the turnpike road, made by the town 
in accordance with the votes passed in town meetings. There were 
widenings, relocations, changes in grade, and other improvements, 
but none changed essentially the original character of the road. 

The Selectmen of the present day are struggling with the prob- 
lem of what to do in Village Square. The town faced the same 
question in 1847, but under conditions decidedly different from 



44 

those of today, as we learn from the report of a committee to con- 
sider and report on the claim of Samuel A. Walker to the land on 
which the hay scales were located, and his petition for the filling 
up of a portion of Boylston and Washington streets, which report 
contains the following: — 

"Walker purchased from the White estate situated at the corner of 
Boylston and Washington streets, a parcel of meadow land which 
he desired to prepare for building lots. To aid in the scheme he 
requested the town to remove the bank wall on Boylston street, and 
to the line of said Walker's land, and fill up and raise the interven- 
ing strip of land to a level with the present travelled part of said 
street. Also to widen the present travelled part of Washington 
street by building a new wall on the line of said Walker's meadow, 
and laying a bridge over the water course or brook now running 
between the front line of said meadow and the brook wall support- 
ing the present elevation of the travelled part of said street." 

The report of the committee gives this description of Village 
Square streets at that time : — 

" The present width of Boylston street from the railing on said 
bank wall to the fence on the other side being in the narrowest 
place about 50 feet, of which 38 feet have been graded for travel- 
ling and a water course, while the same street between Cypress 
street and Walley's Hill for a distance of two hundred paces, is 
only twenty-eight feet in width between railings. 

" The width of Washington street opposite said Walker's meadow 
between the bank wall on the western side and the fence on the 
eastern side is 56 feet, and the length of the present water course 
or brook running on said street, between the bank wall and the 
line of said meadow to the stone bridge, is about 95 feet, over 
which a stone bridge will be required if said petition be granted." 

The town adopted the majority report of the committee, which 
saw neither necessity nor expediency in granting the petition which 
would require an expenditure of several hundred dollars without 
adequate public benefit. 

In building the Reservoir for Boston's water supply from Lake 
Cochituate, certain land was taken from the road as laid out by the 
County Commissioners. At the March town meeting, 1848, this 
question, and the equally important one of lowering the grade over 
Bradley Hill, was referred to a committee consisting of Benjamin 
Goddard, Charles Heath, James Bartlett and Jesse Bird, with 
authority to contract with the Boston Water Commissioners on cer- 
tain conditions, one of which was that the finish of the top of the 
road through the excavation should be done with stone or chips of 
stone and gravel to the width of thirteen feet and the depth of 
twelve inches. 

The grade of the road was reduced six feet, and was widened on 
the northerly side by building abutments of stone wall. The Water 
Commissioners paid $1000, private subscriptions $760, and the 



45 

town appropriated $1,371.97 and agreed to hold the city harmless 
for the land taken from the road for the Reservoir. 

In 1853, the street for a distance of 17 rods in front of Henry 
Lee's was widened, with a culvert, water course and new railing. 
In 1859, at the adjourned annual meeting a motion was offered to 
appropriate $8,000 for lowering the grade of Bradley's Hill, mak- 
ing and repairing Boylston street. This motion did not prevail, 
but was referred to the Selectmen for future report. 

In i860, the abutment wall in front of the estate of John S. 
Wright was relaid. 

In 1862, the grade was improved along that part of the street 
opposite the estates of Francis and Francis K. Fisher, Charles 
Heath and Henry Lee. 

In 1866, a petition was presented to the Selectmen by a large 
number of citizens praying that that part of Boylston street be- 
tween Cypress street and the west line of the estate of Benjamin 
Goddard, which was included in the location of the street but had 
never been made use of, should be graded and occupied. The 
Selectmen reported in substance that if anything was to be done 
it should be well done, and recommended a lowering of the grade 
over Bradley Hill eight feet, and building the street to the full 
width to which the town was entitled by the record. This, how- 
ever, required the building and rebuilding of heavy retaining 
walls. The necessary great expense, in view^ of the high prices pf 
labor and the large debt of the town, both of which they hoped 
soon to see abated, caused the Selectmen to recommend the post- 
ponement of the improvement. At the annual meeting the next 
year, the necessary appropriation was made. 

In accordance with the order of the County Commissioners, the 
street was relocated from Cypress street to the Newton line and 
widened to full width in front of Benjamin Goddard's estate in 
November, 1870, for which purpose the town appropriated twenty- 
seven thousand dollars. To quote from the recorded location : 

" The only abutter to whom damages are awarded is to heirs of 
Benjamin Goddard — $762.82. No other sums are awarded for 
lands taken to widen said Boylston street, as the same already 
belong to said highway, having been included within the location 

of said Turnpike when it was laid out as a highway It 

being hereby noted that the walls and fences at the following 
points encroach upon the street as shown on said plan : viz., on 
lands of John A. Bird, heirs of William Bird, M. P. Kennard, 
Henry V. Poor, N. G. Chapin, Jabez Fisher, lands late of S. Row- 
land Hart, Mrs. Penniman, Theodore Lyman, R. S. Fay, John L. 
Sheriff, Hon. John Lowell, Morris Shea, Michael Barry and John 
Reardon." 

Not until the next century was the street seriously disturbed 
again, but in igoo, under authority of the vote of November 9th, 



46 

1 899) passed at probably the largest meeting, exclusive of elections, 
the town has ever had for transacting public business, work was 
again begun on another, and let us hope the final, widening of the 
street from Cypress street to the Newton line, an improvement 
which required an appropriation of $300,000 for land damages and 
cost of construction. 

History is the story of successions and the causes thereof. 

As the Indian trail merged into the path and the path grew into 
the road, as the road became the " King's Highway " to be in turn 
succeeded by the straight-away turnpike, — so, in the evolution of 
transportation facilities, the turnpike, travelled night and day by 
the express stage-lines, filled its place in the history of that evolu- 
tion, and, with some spasmodic resistance, succumbed before the 
iron horse, puffing and whistling along the steel-railed right of way. 

Stagecoach and tavern days reached the high level of their 
development along the line from Boston to Worcester from 1830 to 
1835, after which the once popular route took its place in history 
as the " Old Worcester Turnpike," its usefulness almost entirely 
taken away by the completion of the Boston and Worcester steam 
railroad. 

In 1 83 1 and 1832, there were one hundred and six stagecoach 
lines running out of Boston in different directions, and time-tables 
of the various lines were published regularly. How many stage- 
lines passed through Brookline, the writer cannot say definitely ; 
but it was estimated that in 1831 the average amount of travelling 
between Boston and Worcester — the bulk of which passed through 
Brookline over the turnpike — was equal to 22,360 passages per 
annum, for which the lowest fare was two dollars and the shortest 
time six hours. 

In 1905 the electric lines over almost the same route — exactly 
the same until some distance beyond Framingham — carried 
10,279.303 paying passengers, of which 401,478 were through 
travellers hehveen Boston and Worcester. 

Radiating from Worcester, connecting with the Boston stages, 
were many other lines, and they continued for years before the 
steam railroads supplanted them. The owner of the most impor- 
tant of these radiating lines, with one hundred and fifty horses and 
controlling stage routes aggregating two hundred and eighty-six 
miles, was Ginery Twichell, who later resided in Brookline on 
Kent street, and became a member of Congress. He started as a 
postrider and stage-driver and gradually became one of the great 
men, not only in that business, but in the steam railroad business, 
which took its place. A lithograph was published in 1850 pictur- 
ing a man galloping along the road in a driving snowstorm, en- 
titled, " The unrivaled express rider Ginery Twichell, who rode 



47 

from Worcester to Hartford, a distance of sixty miles, in three hours 
and twenty minutes through a deep snow January 23, 1846." 

Although the many changes in Brookline have been noted, the 
turnpike road received little attention in the towns beyond after 
the proprietors surrendered the charter and it became a public 
highway. It suffered the usual vicissitudes of the ordinary coun- 
try road and repairs were made only when necessary. Other roads 
which avoided the steep grades and long hard climbs made true 
the old saying that " the longest way round is the shortest way 
home." 

There was little if any through travel, and except for short 
stretches through the populous sections of towns, it retained not a 
shadow of its former popularity. Moss-covered stone walls or 
dilapidated weather-beaten fences marked its bounds ; with here 
and there a turnout to enable the thirsty horses or cattle to drink 
from some clear-watered brook which flowed lazily under the road- 
way. The quiet and peacefulness along the way was undisturbed 
except by the clatter of the bell on some cow's neck as she fed 
along the faintly marked side-path on the way to and from the 
nearby pasture. 

For over fifty years, the old turnpike dozed and nodded in this 
sleepy sort of a way, until in the first years of the twentieth 
century its slumbers were disturbed by the sudden shock of the 
electric current, which, revolutionizing nearly every form of in- 
dustry, has affected the problem of transportation in particular. 
Again the engineers and contractors covered the ground, and 
when they had finished their work the old road was so altered in 
appearance that never again can it be recognized, even by itself. 

Today, the " broom-stick trains " leave " ye ancient highway in 
Brookline where the arch stands " for " the street in Worcester 
near the Court House " every half hour or less, and carry thou- 
sands of coach-loads of passengers at high speed, without dust, 
cinders, or other similar discomfort. Every seat is an outside seat 
in pleasant summer weather, and in cold or stormy weather the 
easy-riding cars are well warmed and comfortably furnished. In 
1906, we might repeat the words of the historian of seventy years 
ago, when he said in regard to the stage coach lines of 1836, "the 
speed of travelling and its facilities have been increased almost 
beyond measure. " 

[Read before the Society December 26, 1906, by Edward W. Baker.] 



No. 9016. 

Commonwcaltb of flDasoacbusetta* 



iSt it ftnoton That whereas Rufus George Frederick Candage, 
Edward Wild Baker, Julia Goddard, John Emory Hoar, 
Harriet Alma Cummings, Charles Henry Stearns, James 
Macmaster Codman, Jr., Charles French Read, Edwin 
Birchard Cox, Willard Y. Gross, Charles Knowles Bolton, 
Tappan Eustis Francis, Desmond FitzGerald, D. S. Sanford, 
and Martha A. Kittredge have associated themselves with the inten- 
tion of forming a corporation under the name of the 

BroofUine iDistorical Societi^, 

for the purpose of the study of the history of the town of Brookline, 
Massachusetts, its societies, organizations, families, individuals, and 
events, the collection and preservation of its antiquities, the establish- 
ment and maintenance of an historical library, and the publication from 
time to time of such information relating to the same as shall be deemed 
expedient, and have complied with the provisions of the statutes of this 
Commonwealth in such case made and provided, as appears from the 
certificate of the President, Treasurer, and Directors of said corporation, 
duly approved by the Commissioner of Corporations and recorded in 
this office ; 

i^oto, tljcrefare, E, William M. Olin, Secretary of the Commonweath of 
Massachusetts, Ba {)cret)g rnttfg, that said Rufus George Frederick 
Candage, Edward Wild Baker, Julia Goddard, John Emory 
Hoar, Harriet Alma Cummings, Charles Henry Stearns, 
James Macmaster Codman, Jr., Charles French Read, Edwin 
Birchard Cox, Willard Y. Gross, Charles Knowles Bolton, 
Tappan Eustis Francis, Desmond FitzGerald, D. S. Sanford, 
and Martha A. Kittredge, their associates and successors, are legally 
organized and established as and are hereby made an existing corpora- 
tion under the name of the 

Brool?Iine Ibistorical Society?, 

with the powers, rights and privileges, and subject to the limitations, 
duties and restrictions, which by law appertain thereto. 

Sditiuss my official signature hereunto sub- 
scribed, and the seal of the Commonwealth 
of Massachusetts hereunto affixed, this 
twenty-ninth day of April, in the year of our 
Lord one thousand nine hundred and one. 
Wm. M. Olin, 
Secretary of the Commonwealth. 




BROOKLINE HISTORICAL SOCIETY. 



OFFICERS AND COMMITTEES. 
1907. 

Trustees. 

RuFUS G. F. Candage, President. Mrs. Martha A. Kittredge. 
Miss Julia Goddard. Charles H. Stearns, Vice-Pres. 

Mrs. Susan V. Griggs. Charles F. White. 

Edward W. Baker, Clerk and Treasurer. 

Committee on Rooms. 

Miss Julia Goddard. Mrs. Susan Vining Griggs. 

Charles H. Stearns. 
RuFUS G. F. Candage, President, \ ^ ■ 
Edward W. Baker, Clerk, ^ex-ojjicto. 

Committee on Papers. 

Miss Ellen Chase. Charles H. Stearns. 

Charles F. White. 

Committee on Membership. 

Albert A. Folsom. James Adams. 

George S. Mann. George F. Dearborn. 

WiLLARD Y. Gross. 

Committee on Library. 

Charles F. Read. Henry D. Eustis. 

Luther M. Merrill. Albert A. Folsom. 

John H. Sherburne, Jr. 

Committee on Finance. 

James M. CoDMAN, Jr. Charles H.Stearns. 

RuFUS G. F. Candage, President, ex-officio. 

Committee on Publications. 

Charles F. Read. Frederick L. Gay. 

Franklin W. Hobbs. 



RuFus G. F. Candage, "> ^ ^^,v^ 
Edward W. Baker, ]<^x-officio. 



MEMBERS. 

May, 1907. 



**Benefactors. 
Adams, Benjamin F. 
Adams, Frank Sydney 
Adams, James 

Addison, Daniel Dulany (D.D.) 
Arnold, Mrs. Tirzah S. 
Aspinwall, Thomas 
Atkinson, Mrs. Mary C. 

Bailey, Arthur H. 
Baker, Charles M. 
Baker, Mrs. Edith C. 
Baker, Edward Wild 
Baker, Mrs. Alice Souther 
Bates, Jacob P. 
Beck, Frederick 
Bickford, Scott F. 
Blanchard, Benjamin S. (M.D.) 
Boit, Mrs. Robert A. 
Bowker, Edwin P. 
Burdett, Frank W. 

Cabot, Elizabeth Rogers 
*Candage, Rufus George Frederick 
*Candage, Mrs. Ella Marie 

Candage, Robert Brooks 

Carroll, B. Frank 

Chandler, Alfred Dupont 

Channing, Walter (M.D.) 

Chase, Caleb 

Chase, Miss Ellen 

Chase, Heman Lincoln (M.D.) 

Chase, Walter G. (M.D.) 

Clapp, Miss Mary C. 

Clark, Lyman J. 

Clement, Thomas W. 

Codman, James Macmaster 

Codman, James Macmaster, Jr. 

Cole, Samuel W. 

Comstock, William O. 
*Conant, Lewis S. 

Conant, Nathaniel 



*Life Members. 
Belmont, Mass. 
iiS Mason terrace. 
90 Longwood avenue. 
47 Garrison road. 
81 Davis avenue. 
14 Hawthorn road. 
Heath avenue. 

195 Davis avenue. 

Ill Ivy street. 

Ill Ivy street. 

29 Vernon street. 

29 Vernon street. 

222 Summer street, Boston. 

43 Davis avenue. 

24 Kilsyth road. 

432 Washington street. 

19 Colchester street. 
224 Aspinwall avenue. 

44 Harvard avenue. 

Heath street. , 

20 Kent street. 
20 Kent street. 
20 Kent street. 
217 Walnut street. 

411 Washington street. 

27 Chestnut Hill avenue. 

1546 Beacon street. 

Rawson road. 

Kennard road. 

40 St. Paul street. 

Newton street. 

63 Harvard avenue. 

II Davis avenue. 

Warren street. 

Warren street. 

56 Thorndike street. 

54 Dudley street. 

72 Park street. 

25 Gardner road. 



54 



Coolidge, Miss Ellen G. 
Cox, Edwin Birchard 
Craig, William 

Crosby, Mrs. William Sumner 
^Cummings, Prentiss 



Harvard street. 
125 Buckminster road. 
15 Columbia street. 
173 Gardner road. 
187 Gardner road. 



**Dane, Ernest B. 
Davenport, F. H. 
Davis, George P. 
Dearborn, George F. 
Doliber, Thomas 
*Doliber, Mrs. Ada Ripley 
Dolliver, Mrs. Ella Augusta 
Driscoll, Michael 
Duncklee, Charles B. 



Heath street. 

Kennardroad. 

16 Emerson street. 

125 Park street. 

Goddard avenue. 

Goddard avenue. 

Humboldt avenue, Roxbury, 

9 Kent street. 

683 Washington street. 



Estabrook, Willard W. 

Esty, Clarence H. 
*Eustis, Miss Elizabeth M. 
*Eustis, Henry D. 

Eustis, Joseph Tracy 
*Eustis, Miss Mary S. B. 



60 Longwood avenue. 
Addington road. 
1020 Beacon street. 
1020 Beacon street. 
93 Ivy street, 
1020 Beacon street. 



Fay, James H. 
*Fish, Mrs. Clara P. 

Fish, Frederick P. 

FitzGerald, Desmond 
*Fitzpatrick, Thomas B. 

Flanders, Mrs. Helen Burgess 

Fleming, John F. 

Folsom, Albert Alonzo 

Folsom, Mrs. Julia E. 

Francis, Carleton S. (M.D.) 

Francis, George H. (M.D.) 

Francis, Tappan Eustis (M.D.) 

French, Alexis H. 



Linden place. 
9 Prescott street. 
9 Prescott street. 
410 Washington street. 
15 Winthrop road, 
37 Auburn street. 
29s Pond avenue. 
23 Garrison road. 
23 Garrison road. 
26 Davis avenue. 
295 Walnut street. 
35 Davis avenue. 
35 Cypress street. 



Gaither, Charles Perry 
*Gay, Frederick Lewis 

Gibbs, Emery B. 
**Goddard, Miss Julia 
**Goddard, Mary Louisa 

Gray, William H. 

Griggs, Mrs. Susan Vining 

Gross, Willard Young 

Gross, Mrs. Susan M. 

Guild, Mrs. Sarah E, M, 



30 Francis street, 

Holland road. 

42 Alton place, 

Warren street. 

6 Commonwealth avenue, 

73 Middlesex road, C. H. 

555 Washington street. 

II Holden street. 

1 1 Holden street. 

Elm place. 



Boston. 



55 



Hedge, Frederick H. 
*Hill, William H. 
Hoar, David Blakely 
Hobbs, Franklin W. 
Hopkins, Charles A. 
Hook, Miss Maria C. 
Howe, Miss Harriet Augusta 
Howe, Miss Louise 
Hunt, William D. 
Hunt, Mrs. William D. 



440 Boylston street. 
81 Marion street. 
100 High street. 
78 Upland road. 
80 Winthrop road. 
Newton street. 
Linden street. 
Linden street. 
30 Warren street. 
30 Warren street. 



Jones, Mrs. Clarence W. 
*Jones, Jerome 



loi St. Mary's street, 
loi Summit avenue. 



Kenrick, Alfred Eugene 
♦Kimball, Miss Helen Frances 
*Kimball, Lulu Stacy 
*Kittredge, Mrs. Martha A. 



71 Gorham avenue. 
292 Kent street. 
394 Kent street. 
Gardner road. 



Lamb, Henry W. 
Lamb, Miss Augusta T. 
Lauriat, Charles E. 
Lee, Mrs. Sara White 
LeMoyne, Macpherson 
Lincoln, Albert L. 
Lincoln, William E. 
Lincoln, Mrs. William E. 
Lincoln, William Henry 
Little, James Lowell 
Longyear, John M. 
Luke, Otis H. 
Lord, Calvin 
Lyon, William Henry (D.D. 



13S High street. 
138 High street. 
1049 Beacon street. 
43 Harvard avenue. 
93 Pleasant street. 
Walnut place. 
54 Gardner road. 
54 Gardner road. 
Beech road. 
Goddard avenue. 
Leicester street. 
1223 Beacon street. 
7 Auburn court. 
353 Walnut street. 



Mann, George Sumner 
Mason, Frank H. 
Maxwell, George Frederic 
Merrill, Frank A. 
*Merrill, Luther M. 
Mowry, Oscar B. 
McKey, Joseph 
McKey, Mrs. W. R. 
Murphy, James S. 



1760 Beacon street. 
21 Fuller street. 
37 Harris street. 
123 Dean road. 
62 Green street. 
136 St. Paul street. 
24 Stearns road. 
18 Stearns road. 
1575 Beacon street. 



Norton, Fred L. 



147 Winchester street. 



O'Brien, Thomas L. 
Otis, Herbert Foster 



9 Regent circle. 
165 Fisher avenue. 



56 



Palmer, Mrs. Emma L. 
Parsons, William E. 
Pattee, Mrs. Eleanor T. 
Pearson, Charles Henry 
**Perry, Arthur 
Poor, Miss Agnes Blake 
Poor, Mrs. Lillie Oliver 
Poor, Mrs. Mary W. 
Poor, James Ridgway 
Pope, Arthur Wallace 
Porter, Georgia M. Whidden 



Newton street. 
92 Marion street. 
Ivy street. 
350 Tappan street. 

389 Walnut street. 
201 Buckminster road. 
389 Walnut street. 
201 Buckminster road. 
1763 Beacon street. 
69 Longwood avenue. 



Read, Charles French 14 Elm street. 

^Richardson, Frederic Leopold Wni. Warren street. 
Richardson, Plenry Hobson Cottage street. 

Ritchie, Andrew Montgomery 268 Walnut street. 

Rooney, James C. 50 Kent street. 



Sabine, George K. (M.D.) 
Salisbury, William Cabot Gorham 
*Sargent, Charles Sprague 
Saxe, John W. 
Schweinfurth, Julius A. 
Seaver, William James 
Sedgwick, William T. 
Shaw, James F. 
Sherburne, John H., Jr. 
Snow, Franklin A. 
Spencer, Charles A. W. 
Stearns, Charles Henry 
Stearns, James Pierce 
Stearns, William Bramhall 
Stevens, Mrs. Mary Louise 
Stone, Galen L. 
Storrow, Charles 
Storrs, Miss Maria 
Swan, Reuben S. 
Swan, Robert T. 
Swan, Mrs. Robert T. 

*Talbot, Fritz B. 
Thayer, Frank Bartlett 

Utley, Charles H. 

Walker, Nathaniel U. 
Ware, Henry 
Warren, Edward R. 
Watson, Miss Mary 



30 Irving street. 

3 Parkman terrace. 
Warren street. 
324 Tappan street. 
10 Webster place. 
76 Longwood avenue. 
20 Edgehill road. 
Powell street. 
262 Walnut street. 
523 Washington street. 
I Harvard street. 
265 Harvard street. 

31 Pleasant street. 
43 Pleasant street. 
39 Columbia street. 
Buckminster road. 
112 High street. 

130 Aspinwall avenue. 
91 Babcock street. 
1015 Beacon street. 
1015 Beacon street. 

131 Sewall avenue. 
i668 Beacon street. 

23 Regent circle. 

Buckminster road. 
I Perrin road. 
76 Walnut street. 
Goddard avenue. 



57 



Watson, Mrs.Eliza Tilden Goddard 
Wead, Leslie C. 
Whitcomb, Lawrence 
White, Charles F. 
White, Mrs. Louie D. 
White, Francis A. 
White, William H. 
White, William Howard 
White, William Orne (D.D.) 
Whiting, John K. 
Whitman, William 
Whitney, Henry M. 
Wight, Lewis 
*Wightman, George H. 
Wiljcut, Levi Lincoln 
Williams, Charles A. 
Williams, Mrs. Elizabeth Whitney 
Williams, Moses 
Winsor, Alfred 
Winsor, Mrs. Alfred 
Woods, J. Henry (M.D.) 



Goddard avenue, 

220 Aspinwall avenue. 

128 Crafts road. 

Warren street. 

Warren street. 

Warren street. 

93 Dean road. 

164 Chestnut Hill avenue. 

222 High street. 

Longwood avenue. 

Goddard avenue. 

519 Boylston street. 

Rawson road. 

Hawes street. 

9 Longwood avenue. 

35 Walnut place. 

50 Edgehill road. 

Warren street. 

204 Walnut street. 

204 Walnut street. 

39 Salisbury road. 



Young, William Hill 



21 John street. 



CORRESPONDING MEMBER. 
Ricker, Mrs. Emeline Carr Dorchester. 



BROOKLINE HISTORICAL SOCIETY. 



BY-LAWS. 

ARTICLE I. 

NAME. 

The name of this corporation shall be Brookline Historical 
Society. 

ARTICLE II. 

OBJECTS, 

The objects of this Society shall be the study of the history of 
the town of Brookline, Massachusetts, its societies, organizations, 
families, individuals, events; the collection and preservation of its 
antiquities, the establishment and maintenance of an historical 
library, and the publication from time to time of such information 
relating to the same as shall be deemed expedient. 

ARTICLE III. 

MEMBERSHIP. 

Any person of moral character who shall be nominated and 
approved by the Board of Trustees may be elected to membership 
by ballot of two-thirds of the members present and voting thereon 
at any regular meeting of the Society. Each person so elected 
shall pay an admission fee of three dollars, and an annual assess- 
ment of two dollars ; and any member who shall fail for two con- 
secutive years to pay the annual assessment shall cease to be a 
member of this Society ; provided, however, that any member who 
shall pay twenty-five dollars in any one year may thereby become 
a Life member ; and any member who shall pay fifty dollars in any 
one year may thereby become a Benefactor of the Society, and 
thereafter shall be free from all dues and assessments. The money 
received from Life members and Benefactors shall constitute a 
fund, of which not more than twenty per cent, together with the 
annual income therefrom, shall be spent in any one year. 

The Society may elect Honorary and Corresponding members 
in the manner in which annual members are elected, but they shall 
have no voice in the management of the Society, and shall not be 
subject to fee or assessment. 

ARTICLE IV. 

CERTIFICATES. 

Certificates signed by the President and the Clerk may be issued 
to all persons who become Life members, and to Benefactors. 



ARTICLE V. 

OFFICERS. 

The officers of this Society shall be seven Trustees, a President, 
a Vice-President, a Secretary (who shall be Clerk of the Society 
and may also be elected to fill the office of Treasurer), and a 
Treasurer, who, together, shall constitute the Board of Trustees. 
The Trustees, Clerk, and Treasurer shall be chosen by ballot at 
the annual meeting in January, and shall hold office for one year, 
and until others are chosen and qualified in their stead. The 
President and Vice-President shall be chosen by the Board of 
Trustees from their number at their first meeting after their 
election, or at an adjournment thereof. 

ARTICLE VI. 

MEETINGS. 

The annual meeting of this Society shall be held on the fourth 
Wednesday of January. Regular stated meetings shall be held on 
the fourth Wednesday of February, March, April, May, October, 
November, and December. 

Special meetings may be called by order of the Board of Trus- 
tees. The Clerk shall notify each member by a written or printed 
notice sent through the mail postpaid at least three days before 
the time of meeting, or by publishing such notice in one or more 
newspapers published in Brookline. 

At all meetings of the Society ten (lo) members shall constitute 
a quorum for the transaction of business. 

The meetings of the Board of Trustees shall be called by the 
Clerk at the request of the President, by giving each member 
personal or written notice, or by sending such notice by mail, post- 
paid, at least twenty-four hours before the time of such meeting ; 
but meetings where all the Trustees are present may be held with- 
out such notice. The President shall call meetings of the Board 
of Trustees at the request of any three members thereof. A 
majority of its members shall constitute a quorum for the transac- 
tion of business. 

ARTICLE VII. 

VACANCIES. 

Vacancies in the offices of Trustees, Clerk, or Treasurer maybe 
filled for the remainder of the term at any regular meeting of the 
Society by the vote of two-thirds of the members present and 
voting. In the absence of the Clerk at a meeting of the Society, a 
Clerk pro teynpore shall be chosen. 



Ill 
ARTICLE VIII. 

NOMINATING COMMITTEE. 

At the monthly meeting in December, a Nominating Committee 
of three members shall be appointed by the presiding officer, who 
shall report at the annual meeting a list of candidates for the 
places to be filled. 

ARTICLE IX. 

PRESIDING OFFICER. 

The President, or in his absence the Vice-President, shall pre- 
side at all meetings of the Society. In the absence of those 
officers a President /w tempore shall be chosen. 

ARTICLE X. 

DUTIES OF THE CLERK. 

The Clerk shall be sworn to the faithful discharge of his duties. 
He shall notify members of all meetings of the Society, and shall 
keep an exact record of all the proceedings of the Society at its 
meetings. 

He shall conduct the general correspondence of the Society and 
place on file all letters received. 

He shall enter the names of members in order in books or cards 
kept for that purpose, and issue certificates to Life members and to 
Benefactors. 

He shall have charge of such property in possession of the 
Society as may from time to time be delegated to him by the Board 
of Trustees. 

He shall acknowledge all loans or gifts made to the Society. 

ARTICLE XI. 

DUTIES OF THE TREASURER. 

The Treasurer shall collect all moneys due the Society, and pay 
all bills against the Society when approved by the Board of 
Trustees. He shall keep a full account of receipts and expendi- 
tures in a book belonging to the Society, which shall always be 
open to the inspection of the Trustees ; and at the annual meeting 
in January he shall make a written report of all his doings for the 
year preceding. The Treasurer shall give bonds in such sum, with 
surety, as the Trustees may fix, for the faithful discharge of his 
duties. 

ARTICLE XII. 

DUTIES AND POWERS OF TRUSTEES. 

The Board of Trustees shall superintend the prudential and 
executive business of the Society, authorize all expenditures of 



IV 

money, fix all salaries, provide a common seal, receive and act 
upon all resignations and forfeitures of membership, and see that 
the by-laws are duly complied with. The Board of Trustees shall 
have full powers to hire, lease, or arrange for a suitable home for 
the Society, and to make all necessary rules and regulations 
required in the premises. 

They shall make a report of their doings at the annual meeting 
of the Society. 

They may from time to time appoint such sub-committees from 
their own number as they deem expedient. 

In case of a vacancy in the office of Clerk or Treasurer they 
shall have power to choose the same pro tempore till the next 
meeting of the Society. 

ARTICLE XIII. 

STANDING COMMITTEES. 

The President shall annually, in the month of January, appoint 
four standing committees, as follows : — 

Committee on Rooms. 
A committee of three members, to be styled the " Committee on 
Rooms," to which shall be added the President and Clerk of the 
Society ex-officio, who shall have charge of all arrangements of 
the rooms (except books, manuscripts, and other objects appro- 
priate to the library offered as gifts or loans), the hanging of 
pictures, and the general arrangements of the Society's collection 
in their department. 

Committee on Papers. 

A committee of three members, to be styled the " Committee on 
Papers," who shall have charge of the subjects of papers to be 
read, or other exercises of a profitable nature, at the monthly 
meetings of the Society. 

Committee on Me7nbership. 

A committee of three or more members, to be styled the " Com- 
mittee on Membership," whose duty it shall be to give information 
in regard to the purposes of the Society, and increase its mem- 
bership. 

Committee on Library. 

A committee of three or more members, to be styled the " Com- 
mittee on Library," who shall have charge of the arrangements of 
the library, including acceptance and rejection of books, manu- 
scripts, and other objects tendered to the library, and the general 
arrangement of the Society's collections in that department. 



These four committees shall perform their duties as above set 
forth under the general direction and supervision of the Board of 
Trustees. 

Vacancies that occur in any of these committees during their 
term of service shall be filled by the President. 

ARTICLE XIV. 

FINANCE COMMITTEE. 

The President shall annually, in the month of January, appoint 
two members, who, with the President, shall constitute the Com- 
mittee on Finance, to examine from time to time the books and 
accounts of the Treasurer, to audit his accounts at the close of the 
year, and to report upon the expediency of proposed expenditures 
of money. 

ARTICLE XV. 

AMENDMENTS. 

These by-laws may be altered or amended at any regular meeting 
by a two-thirds vote of the members present, notice of the subject- 
matter of the proposed alterations or amendments having been 
given at a previous meeting. 




PROCEEDINGS 



OF THE 



Brookline Historical Society 



AT THE 



ANNUAL MEETING. JANUARY 22, I9O8 



PROCEEDINGS 



OF THE 



Brookline Historical Society 



AT THE 



ANNUAL MEETING, JANUARY 22, 1908 




BROOKLINE, MASS. 

PUBLISHED BY THE SOCIETY 

M CM VIII 



V 1 - 



■f irtmvni I 




•I.. 



CONTENTS. 



I. President's Address 5 

11. Report of the Treasurer . . . 11 

III. Report of the Nominating Committee . . 12 

IV. The Devotion School Fund .... 13 

V. The Woodward-Goldsmith House, Clyde 

Street, Brookline 27 

VI. Charter of Corporation 39 

VII. Officers and Committees for 1908 41 

VIII. List of Members 43 

IX. By-Laws 49 



BROOKLINE HISTORICAL SOCIETY. 



SEVENTH ANNUAL MEETING. 



The seventh annual meeting of the Brookhne His- 
torical Society was held in the G. A. R. Room, Town 
Hall, Brookline, Mass., on Wednesday, January 22, 
1908, at 8 p. m., in accordance with a notice mailed 
to every member. 

In the absence of Captain Candage, the president, 
Charles H. Stearns, Esq., the vice-president, was in 
the chair. 

The records of the last annual and monthly meet- 
ings were read by the clerk and approved. 

The President's Annual Address was read by Mr. 
Charles F. Read. 

PRESIDENT'S ANNUAL ADDRESS. 

Members of the Brookline Historical Society: — 

Ladies and Gentlemen, — We are met at this seventh annual 
meeting of our Society to take into account some of the 
occurrences of the past year, hear reports of the officers and 
committees, and elect officers for the year 1908. The Society 
in the year past has held regular stated meetings, at which 
the following papers were read: — 

January 23, The President's Annual Address. 

February 27, The Woodward House, Clyde St.; a study of its con- 
struction, with drawings and some account of its occupants from 
1715 to 1900, by Miss Ellen Chase and Charles F. White. Read by 
Charles F. White. 

March 27, "Early Predecessors of the Heath School," by Michael 
DriscoU. 



April 24, "Rebecca Nourse," by Miss Louise Howe. Read by Miss 
H. Alma Cummings. 

May 22, "The Settlement of Massachusetts Bay Colony under 
Roger Conant, 1623-1628," by Mrs. Sarah S. Bartlett. 

October 30, "The American Revolution: Its Causes and Com- 
mencement: The Royalist's View," by James H. Stark. 

November 27, "Charles James Fox: The Colonies' Friend in Parlia- 
ment," by George S. Mann. 

December 18, "The French Neutrals," by Miss Louise Flagg. 

THE MEMBERSHIP 

of the Society has increased materially during the past year, 
largely by means of a circular letter addressed to citizens of 
Brookline by the Committee on Membership. There are at 
present 177 members in the Society, of which four are 
benefactors and twenty-three are life members. 

This result proves that the people of our town are disposed 
to assist the Society in its work of studying the history of 
Brookline and preserving its antiquities. 

THE MEMBERS DECEASED 

during the past year were four, as follows : — 

ROBERT THAXTER SWAN 

Record Commissioner of Massachusetts, who died at his 
home, Beacon St., Brookline, July 26, 1907, aged 64 years. 
He was born in Dorchester, Mass., and there became clerk of 
the Municipal Court; later, in 1882-83, was elected to the 
General Court, and still later was appointed Record Com- 
missioner, a position he held at the time of his death. He 
was well and favorably known to the community at large. 

MRS. MARY LOUISE STEVENS 

died at her home on Columbia street, Brookline, Sept. 17, 
1907, aged 67 years. She was the widow of our former 
member, Frederick Thayer Stevens, and joined the Society 
with him in 1903. They were much interested and regular 
attendants on the meetings of the Society until his death 
and her illness prevented. 

MRS. MARY CAROLINE ATKINSON 

widow of Edward Atkinson, a native of Brookline, in which 
she had always resided, died at her home Dec. 12, 1907, 
aged 77 years. She and her late husband joined the Society 



shortly after its organization, and, although not able to 
attend its meetings, took a deep interest in its affairs. 

ALBERT ALONZO FOLSOMj 

who had been actively interested in the welfare of the Society 
and had served acceptably on its committees, died at his 
home in Brookline, Dec. 24, 1907, aged 73 years. Capt. 
Folsom was born in Exeter, N. H., in 1834, and came to Bos- 
ton early in life and became a newspaper reporter on the 
Atlas and the Bee, and later on the Journal. 

In 1854 he entered the service of the Boston and Provi- 
dence R. R. Co., and became its general ticket agent. In 
1860 he became the head of transportation, with his office at 
Providence, in 1864 he was made assistant superintendent 
and in 1867 superintendent of the road, in which position he 
remained until the road was merged in the New York, New 
Haven & Hartford R. R. Co. Capt. Folsom was a prominent 
member of the Ancient and Honorable Artillery Co.; he was 
a Mason of high respect, having served as Master of Colum- 
bian Lodge, was a Knight Templar, and had been Deputy 
Grand Master of the Massachusetts Grand Lodge. He was 
deeply interested in historical matters, and a member of 
various historical organizations. He possessed a retentive 
memory for historic dates, was a good conversationalist, an 
agreeable acquaintance, and a warm and devoted friend. 

THE TOTAL DEATHS OF RESIDENTS OF BROOKLINE 

in 1907 were 380, of whom 109 had reached, and in most 
cases, exceeded the bound of three score and ten, and 73 had 
exceeded 75 years; 30 were between 75 and 80; 26 were be- 
tween 80 and 85; 10 were between 85 and 90, and 5 had ex- 
ceeded the limit of 90 years. The 5 above 90 were Samuel 
Hall, 92; Joseph K. Hayes, 95; Nancy P. Gibbs, 90; Samuel G. 
Leavitt, 91, and Thomas E. Quimby, 90. Those between 85 
and 90 were Charlotte E. Varney, 88; Mary Mitchell, 87; 
Mary A. M. Faxon, 89; Mary Lyons, 88; Edward Russell, 86; 
Elizabeth Postawka, 86; Anne Loring, 86; EHzabeth F. 
Porter, 86; Edwin O. Marston, 87, and George Brooks, 87. 
Those between 80 and 85 were Annie E. Bowman, 82; Isaac 
L. Cox, 80; Rebecca W. Prescott, 80; Anaretta F. Leighton, 
81; Elizabeth S. Wilbor, 80; Catherine E. Rametti, 80; 



Nancy C. Farwell, 83; Thomas H. Talbot, 83; Hannah S. 
Nettleton, 80; Mary A. Proctor, 84; Mary E. Hall, S3; Marcia 
A. Patten, 84; Fanny Cohen, 80; Nathaniel H. Furness, 81; 
Andrew J. Huey, 84; James G. Wiswell, 80; Susan Lucas, 84; 
Eneas Smythe, 81; Caroline Stern, 80; Rachel Bowes, 84; 
Angelina P. Tufts, 80; Elizabeth S. Folsom, 80; Sterne Morse, 
83; Anne Boland, 80; Mary L. Talbot, 81, and Matilda C. 
Dexter, 83. 

THE YEAR 1907 

proved to be one of many historical celebrations in our state, 
and not only in the state but in our country, beginning with 
the Jamestown Exhibition in honor of the settlement of Vir- 
ginia. In August there was a celebration at Falmouth, Mass., 
in memory of Bartholomew Gosnold's visit to the shores of 
that town in 1602. On August 15th there was unveiled at 
Gloucester, Mass., a bronze tablet in memory of the men 
who, at the instigation of Rev. John White, came from Dor- 
chester, England, in 1623, and made Gloucester the first 
settlement in the Massachusetts Bay Colony. 

On August 20th occurred the great celebration, with an 
address by President Roosevelt, in connection with laying 
the corner stone of the Pilgrim Memorial Monument at 
Provincetown, Mass., in honor of the first harbor made in 
America by the Mayflower and the first landing of her pas- 
sengers on American soil. 

Historical leaflets of great value relating to those several 
periods commemorated by these observances were published 
in the Old South Leaflets series. First is the account of 
Gosnold's settlement at Cuttyhunk, written by Gabriel 
Archer, who accompanied Gosnold on his expedition in 1602. 
The third centennial of that event was held in 1902, when the 
corner stone of a Gosnold Monument was laid at Cuttyhunk, 
which was completed and dedicated in 1903. The Falmouth 
people were behindhand in their celebration ; Gosnold sailed 
from Falmouth, Eng., March 25, 1602, and sighted the coast of 
New England on May 14th, then skirted the shores of Cape 
Cod and came to Martha's Vineyard and the Elizabeth group 
of islands, to both of which he gave their names. His settle- 
ment at Cuttyhunk was the first in New England, and Ar- 



V 



9 

Cher's account of it is actually believed by some to have sup- 
plied Shakespeare with local color for his "Tempest." 

In Bradford's "History of Plymouth Plantation" we find 
the account of the voyage of the Mayflower, and the signing 
of the famous compact in Provincetown harbor at the end of 
the voyage. Bradford's historic manuscript is preserved and 
exhibited in the State Library and lies open at the place 
where the compact is worded. 

Near the time that the Pilgrims were signing the compact 
in the cabin of the Mayflower at Provincetown harbor, Rev, 
John White of Dorchester, England, was planning for a 
settlement farther north on the New England coast as a 
headquarters and refuge for fishermen resorting to these 
waters, out of which sprang the settlement at Cape Ann in 
1623. 

"White's Plantation Plea," pubhshed in London a few 
years later, played an important part in the history of the 
settlement of Massachusetts. It is an interesting portion of 
this which is printed in the Old South Leaflets. The people 
of Dorchester, Mass., have placed a tablet to White's memory 
in the church at Dorchester, England. The celebration at 
Gloucester fittingly calls attention anew to Rev. John White, 
who has been called "the father of the Massachusetts Bay 
colony." 

Another New England celebration in 1907 worthy of men- 
tion here was the one held at Bath, Me., in honor of the 
building of the first vessel in New England by the Popham 
colony of Maine in 1607. 

The centennial observances of John G. Whittier's birth and 
others during the year past have served to make 1907 a year 
of historic anniversaries worthy of record. 

BROOKLINE ONCE A SHIPBUILDING TOWN. 

Many citizens of Brookline have been merchants, ship- 
owners, shipmasters and engaged in mercantile affairs in 
Boston, but it is not generally known that shipbuilding was 
once carried on within the limits of the town. 

Joshua Magoun, a shipwright from Pembroke, Mass., and 
Francis Turner, from Scituate, under the firm name of Ma- 
goun & Turner, established a yard for building vessels on the 
Charles River in Brookhne in 1832, at or near the site of the 



10 

Cousens Coal Wharf, on what is now Commonwealth avenue. 
In 1832 they there built and launched the barque 
"Brighton," of 337 tons, owned by Rice &Thaxter of Boston, 
and the schooner "Concert," of 68 tons. In 1833 they built 
the barque "Burlington," of 406 tons, for Rice & Thaxter of 
Boston, which vessel was struck by lightning and burned in 
the North Atlantic while on her way from New Orleans to 
Havre with a cargo of cotton, in March, 1840. 

In 1833 Magoun & Turner also built the ship "Marathon," 
of 382 tons, for William Eager of Boston. In 1834 they 
built the schooner "Silver Spring," of 67 tons, for Stepenh 
Sawyer and others of Charlestown, the schooner "Abigail," 
of 89 tons, for John Manson of Scituate, and brig "Carib- 
bean," of 173 tons, for Andrew Cunningham of Boston. The 
"Caribbean" was wrecked and a total loss at Carlescrona, in 
November, 1836, while bound to Boston with a cargo of 
wheat, rye, feathers, etc. 

In 1835 they built the schooner "Gustavus," of 93 tons, for 
Charles Cole and Nehemiah Manson of Boston, and the 
schooner "Blue Rock," of 69 tons, for Stephen Sawyer and 
others of Charlestown, and also the brig "Oak," of 177 tons, 
for Rice & Thaxter of Boston. The brig "Oak" was lost 
Nov., 1853, on Maccaros Shoal on the voyage to New Orleans 
from Rio de Janeiro. 

Joshua Magoun was elected a measurer of wood in Brook- 
line in 1832, and again in 1835. 

About the year 1836 Messrs. Magoun & Turner removed 
their shipyard from Brookline to Charlestown Neck, where 
in the next twenty years they built some fifty vessels. 
Francis Turner was a representative to the General Court 
from Charlestown in 1842. He died in 1851, and his partner, 
Joshua Magoun, in 1856. 

Thus it is seen that at least ten vessels were built in Brook- 
line between the years 1832 and 1835, inclusive, by Magoun & 
Turner. 

The late Benjamin F. Delano of Chelsea informed the 
writer some years ago that he as a young man came from 
Duxbury, his native place and worked as a carpenter for 
Magoun & Turner, upon the first vessels which they built 
in Brookline. 



REPORT OF THE TREASURER. 



Edward W. Baker, Treasurer, 
In account with Brookline Historical Society. 
Balance on hand January 1, 1907: — 

Permanent fund $722 01 

Current fund 35 89 

$757 90 
Receipts to December 31, 1907: — 

Permanent fund $150 92 

Current fund 249 00 

$399 92 



Total balances and receipts $1,157 82 

Expenditures. 
January 1, 1907, to December 31, 1907: — 
From Current Fund. 

Printing Annual Report $110 00 

Printing Notices, etc 43 25 

Postage and Addressing Special Cir- 
cular 35 00 

Postage 15 00 

Envelopes 3 80 

Bay State League 8 00 

Carriage hire 5 00 

Total expenditures $220 05 

Balance January 1, 1908: — 

Permanent fund $872 93 

Current fund 64 84 

Total balances $937 77 

Edward W. Baker, Treasurer. 
Brookline, January 15, 1908. 

I have examined the accounts of Edward W. Baker, Treas- 
urer of the Brookline Historical Society, and find the same 
correct, with proper vouchers for all payments. The bank 
books have been exhibited and verified. The balance in the 
Permanent Fund is $872.93 and in the Current Fund $64.84 
as of January 1, 1908. 

Charles H. Stearns, Auditor. 



REPORT OF THE NOMINATING COMMITTEE. 



Brookline, Mass., Dec, 1907. 
To the Brookline Historical Society: — 

Your committee appointed to nominate candidates for 
officers of the Society for the ensuing year have attended to 
their duties and beg leave to submit the following names : — 

For Trustees. 

RuFus G. F. Candage, 
Miss Julia Goddard, 
Miss Susan V. Griggs, 
Mrs. Martha C. Kittredge, 
Charles H. Stearns, 
Charles F. White, 
Edward W. Baker. 

For Clerk and Treasurer. 
Edward W. Baker. 

For the Committee, 

George S. Mann, Chairman, 

James Adams, 

Joseph McKey. / 

The report was accepted and it was voted to pro- 
ceed to ballot. The ballot was taken and the 
candidates nominated were unanimously elected. 

Voted, To print the president's annual address, 
treasurer's report, by-laws, list of officers and mem- 
bers, and such papers as the Committee on Publica- 
tions may select. 

Edward W. Baker, Clerk. 



13 



THE DEVOTION SCHOOL FUND. 

Read before the Society by Edward W. Baker, February 26, 1908 



From time to time, in newspaper and magazine articles, 
the town of Brookline is advertised at home and abroad 
as "the richest town in the country." What is more to its 
credit, since the population has increased to the proportions 
of a city, the town is constantly referred to as an example of 
municipal administration marked by honesty, intelligence and 
progressiveness. 

All classes of the community participate actively in public 
affairs, and the town benefits by the cooperation of all. It 
has been the very good fortune of the town that such coopera- 
tion has been influenced and guided by the well-educated 
and clear-headed citizens who have given freely of their time 
and contributed to the common good from their experience 
and knowledge of business, the professions, the arts and the 
sciences. Further, the citizens of moderate means, the well- 
to-do, and those of great wealth have willingly borne their 
share of the taxes which have been necessary for the benefit 
of all. 

Although the town has been the home or residence of 
many families of abundant fortune it has profited in com- 
paratively few instances from the gifts or bequests of its 
native or adopted sons or daughters. During the more than 
two hundred years of the town's history, the writer learns of 
only three bequests for the public benefit of which there is 
any record or remembrance today. 

In 1762 the town received the Edward Devotion School 
Fund. A century later, in 1867, under the will of James 
Sullivan Warren, a fund was established for the purpose of 
planting trees along the town highways, and in 1876 the 
Public Library benefited by the bequest of Martin L. Hall 
for "the purchase of books of standard value." 

The generosity of John L. Gardner, whose interest 
prompted his gift to the Public Library, should not be 



14 

overlooked, and full credit should be given to those individuals 
who have made gifts to particular schools or for certain 
specified purposes; but the present consideration applies only 
to bequests for a general public benefit. 

In the year 1634 the General Court ordered a "sufficient 
cart-bridge built over Muddy River," and at a later date 
(1640) the cost of this bridge was apportioned between the 
towns of Boston, Roxbury, Dorchester, Cambridge and 
Watertown. 

The town of Cambridge in 1635 made provision for a cause- 
way and a broad ladder down to low water for the convenience 
of the ferry across Charles river to the road from Roxbury 
and Boston. 

Between the Muddy River cart-bridge and the ferry to 
Cambridge was the established line of travel from Boston to 
the colleges, but it was not until the year 1662 that the river 
was spanned by a bridge. In 1662, however, a bridge was 
built near or at the place where the bridge now crosses the 
river close by Soldiers' Field. At the time it was built 
even until the present, that bridge was and is legally desig- 
nated as the "Great Bridge." 

The completion of the "Great Bridge" brought about the 
formal laying out of "the common highway betwixt Boston 
and Cambridge." 

There was considerable controversy over the matter, but, 
after the committee had "viewed several ways," and had 
"debated the matter with committees for the towns of Bos- 
ton and Cambridge," who did not agree, the report was 
finally presented and accepted, that "the said way shall 
goe without the common field by Goodman Devotion's and 
Goodman Steven's houses and so to Cambridge bounds as 
the old way now runneth." 

So the highway from Boston to Cambridge was laid out, 
and was the only way to Cambridge, except by ferry, until 
1793. 

This was the road traveled by the dignitaries of the church 
and officers of state traveling by horseback or coach between 
Boston and the colleges. Along this road were set the old 
milestones, under the direction of Paul Dudley, of which 
seven were necessary to mark off the road to Cambridge. 



15 

One of those old milestones stands today in the lawn of 
Harvard Church, nearly opposite where it originally stood, 
when erected in 1729. 

Over this road, on April 19, 1775, marched Lord Percy with 
three regiments of infantry, two divisions of marines and two 
pieces of field artillery, on the way from Boston to reinforce 
the eight hundred grenadiers who, in the early morning, had 
crossed in boats from near the present Park Square, Boston, 
to Phips Farm in East Cambridge, and thence to Concord 
and Lexington. 

In the months following Lexington and Bunker Hill, this 
particular road was a throbbing artery of military life and 
energy. With the ten thousand British in Boston besieged by 
the sixteen or seventeen thousand American troops extending 
from Roxbury to Cambridge and Charlestown, the old road 
was marched over and back by the troops from Rhode Island, 
New Hampshire, Connecticut and all parts of Massachusetts. 
Towards Boston traveled those whose sympathies made it 
necessary to seek protection within the lines of His Majesty's 
forces; and in the other direction stretched the line of those 
fleeing from the sufferings and privations of the beleaguered 
town, to seek shelter and assistance from friends and fellow- 
patriots in the country outside. 

Truly the road has its history, and an old house which 
has stood where it now stands facing that road for two 
hundred and twenty-eight years is entitled to some respect 
from the schoolboys and girls of today, as well as from 
their elders, even if the old house does not quite harmonize 
with its surroundings. 

Edward Devotion (1st) joined the First Church in Boston, 
and became a freeman in 1645. He was a planter, and lived 
at Muddy River. He was the father of eleven children, and 
his possessions in land were on both sides of the road from 
Boston to Cambridge, where the house, now standing, was 
built in 1680. Among his children were sons John (born 
1659) and Edward (born 1668). Both signed the petition for 
the separation of BrookHne in 1704. Father and sons are 
frequently mentioned in the earliest town records, — the son 
Edward the more frequently, probably because of greater 
activity in current happenings. 



16 

In addition to the real estate in Brookline which he in- 
herited at the death of his father, the younger Edward owned 
lands in Roxbury, Dorchester and Needham, but he sold 
nearly all of it previous to his death in 1744. He was sur- 
vived only by his widow, Mary, whom he married previous 
to 1719, and who, in the year following her widowhood, 
married Philip Gatcomb of Boston. 

Edward Devotion's last resting place is in the Walnut 
Street Burying Ground, where the spot is marked by the old 
slate gravestone in that part of the grounds included in the 
half-acre originally purchased by the town in 1717. 

His will was signed and dated "this fourteenth day of 
June in the seventeenth year of his majesty's (George III) 
reign and in the year of our Lord Christ one thousand seven 
hundred and forty-three." By this will he names several 
legacies, providing particularly for his well-beloved wife Mary 
and for his beloved friend James Shed of Roxbury, both of 
whom were appointed executors. 

Edward Devotion was not particularly well educated, so 
far as any records show, but that he was interested in the 
welfare of the community in which he had been born and 
lived, that he desired to advance and assist the town in pro- 
viding educational facilities, is amply proved by a provision 
of his will, as follows: — 

"Item. In case my estate prove to be sufificient to pay 
my just debts, funeral charges and the aforementioned lega- 
cies and there should be any overplus left, then my will is 
and I hereby give the said overplus to the town of Brookline 
towards building or maintaining a School as near the centre 
of the said town as shall be agreed upon by the town. But 
if the said Town cannot agree upon a place to set the said 
School upon, then my Will is that the said overplus be laid 
out in purchasing a Wood Lot for the use of the School and 
the ministry of said town forever." 

The question naturally arises, "Why did Edward Devo- 
tion make this provision in his will and why should he stipu- 
late that his legacy should be for 'a school as near the centre 
of said town as shall be agreed upon by the town' ?" 

The answer to the question may be found by a study of the 
town records from the beginning of the town to the year 



17 

preceding the death of Edward Devotion. No more impor- 
tant subject engrossed the attention of the inhabitants than 
the education of their children and the providing of the neces- 
sary faciHties in the way of schoolhouses. As early as 1728 
the town voted to have one schoolhouse as near the centre 
of the town as a spot could be obtained. A committee was 
appointed to measure the town for that purpose, a survey 
was made and a plan drawn, of which a reproduction has 
been published. 

A piece of land was purchased for ;^20from Peter Boylston, 
and a building "twenty-four feet in length, one and twenty 
foot in breadth and seven foot between joynts" was author- 
ized. This building was not erected. The town voted to 
have a north school and a south school, and the Selectmen 
were instructed to dispose of the timber already prepared 
for the 24 ft. X 21 ft. building. 

The school question would not stay settled for any con- 
siderable length of time, and in 1742 the town passed this 
vote : — 

"Voted, to choose a committee to find the most convenient 
spot to erect a school-house for the benefit of the whole town." 

During the period when this school question was discussed, 
Edward Devotion was serving the town in various public 
capacities, particularly as tythingman, — a position which 
means little or nothing to us in 1908, but a position which 
possessed important functions a century and a half ago. 
It seems fair to assume that the agitation of the school 
question, the knowledge of the needs of the community, the 
fact that he had no children to follow him, and a desire to 
benefit the town where he was born and where he had lived, 
caused him to make that provision in his will which has been 
quoted. 

When the provisions of his will became known, after Edward 
Devotion's death, the Selectmen of 1745-1746 took steps to 
protect the town's interest. 

In 1740 Edward Devotion had sold to Solomon Hill — a 
young man in whom he showed great interest — the seventy- 
six acres of land in Brookline which he had inherited from his 
father, — "it being the homestead of the said Devotion." He 
took from Solomon Hill and his wife Hannah (Sheldon) a 
mortgage on the property, and it was a condition affecting 



18 

the legacy to the town that Hill should pay this mortgage 
before the legacy could be of benefit to the town, unless the 
executors should sell the estate by reason of the refusal of 
Hill to redeem the mortgage. 

Without going into legal technicalities or the details of 
real estate transactions, it is sufficient in this connection to 
say that Hill did not pay the mortgage, and under the 
authority of the will a committee, acting as the attorneys 
of the executrix, Mary Gatcomb, sold the property and dis- 
tributed the proceeds as contemplated by the testator. 

The committee who acted in the town's behalf consisted 
of Mr. Isaac Gardner, Capt. Robt. Sharp, Mr. Thomas 
Aspinwall, Hon. Jeremy Gridley and Henry Sewall, Esq. 
These attorneys discharged themselves of their obligations 
by payments to Robert Sharp and the estate of Samuel White 
in the nature of reimbursements for sums which had been ad- 
vanced to protect the town's interests; they also paid to 
Robert Sharp the sum of ;^15 4d lawful money for "purchasing 
a silver tankard for the Church of the town of Brookline accord- 
ing to the will of Edward Devotion." They also paid to the 
trustees named by the town to receive the same, the legacy, 
which amounted to three hundred and eight half Johannes, of 
full weight (equal to $3,696), "for ye use of a school in said 
town." 

This money was received by the trustees in May, 1762, and 
they acted under the authority conveyed in several votes 
passed at the town meeting held in the same month : — 

"Voted, whether the town will appropriate the use of the 
Legacy left said town by Mr. Edward Devotion, dec'd To a 
school, and it passed to appropriate sd Legacy to the use of 
Keeping a School. Voted, That the Middle School House 
where it now Stands be the place to keep a School with the 
Interest of the Legacy left said town by Mr. Edward Devo- 
tion." 

Nehemiah Davis, Nathaniel Sever, Deacon Joseph White, 
Deacon Ebenezer Davis and Isaac Gardner were chosen a 
committee to take care of and let out the legacy, and they 
signed the receipt given to the attorneys for the executrix. 
These trustees organized by choosing Isaac Gardner, Jr., 
as treasurer of the fund, and from that date (1762) until 



s. 


d. 


6 





16 





6 






19 

the fund disappeared as a separate trust in 1846 the com- 
plete records of the original and succeeding trustees are con- 
tained in two volumes preserved in the Town Clerk's office. 
The first items of the expenses by the trustees are these 
entries : — 

£■ 

To cash paid for this book 

To cash for an Iron Mantle-tree for ye school 

To six shillings for a great chear for ye school. ... 

On the credit side of the account appears the receipt of ^1 
from Deacon Davis, the remainder after purchasing the 
tankard for the church. 

The two volumes of accounts give the expenses of main- 
taining the schools, so far as paid from the income of the 
school fund, the principal items covering the salaries of the 
teachers, and the cost of wood for the winter heating. 

There are given the names of some forty schoolmasters 
who served during the life of the fund, about many of whom 
today there is no other record, but of those who were Brook- 
line residents some have left a lasting impression on the 
town's history. Among such are Hull Sewall, 1762-65; Dr. 
Wm. Aspinwall, 1769; Stephen Sharp, 1775-77; John God- 
dard, Jr., 1777; Isaac S. Gardner, 1808-09; and some others. 
In 1768 the master at the grammar school was Jonathan 
Searle, who must have been deep in learning and heavy in 
person if one may judge from the entry that Is 4d was paid 
for bottoming the great chair. 

The principal of the fund was loaned on real estate mort- 
gage security except in two instances. Loans were made to 
the Town of Brookline on several occasions, and to the "State 
of Massachusetts Bay" in 1777. The fund suffered nothing 
from the loans to the town, but the loan to the State depre- 
ciated seriously. 

In 1779, on account of the failure of paper money, the 
principal of the fund was reduced to the equivalent of $2,280.65, 
which was kept good until 1837; in which year the govern- 
ment of the United States made a distribution of the surplus 
revenue, and Brookline's portion, $2,209.34, was added to 
the school fund, the interest to be applied to the support 
of the public schools. 

Two interesting entries are found in the earlier volume. 
The first treasurer, Isaac Gardner, who served from 1762, 



20 

lost his life April 19, 1775, when the British were retreating 
from Concord and Lexington. At the meeting of the School 
Committee "held at the house of Deacon Joseph White, Sep- 
tember, 1775, John Goddard was chosen the School Treasurer 
in room of Isaac Gardner, Deceased." 

The committee held some of its meetings at the Old Punch 
Bowl tavern, as indicated by entries in 1772 and 1774 of 
small amounts paid Landlord Eleazer Baker for enter- 
tainment. 

From time to time the committee in charge of the school 
fund made reports to the town. The most interesting of 
such reports was the one presented in the year 1838, signed 
by Joseph Goddard, Ebenezer Heath, John Robinson, Benja- 
min Goddard and William Ackers, who had served together 
continuously for twenty years or more. The original manu- 
script of this report of 1838 is preserved in the Town Clerk's 
office and is a very interesting document. The committee 
reported as follows: — 

"The Trustees of the School Fund avail themselves of this 
opportunity to Tender to the Town their resignations of said 
office, — this they do in consideration of their advanced ages, 
all of them having arrived over three score years and ten and 
some of them nearer fourscore. 

"They also embrace this as a suitable opportunity to report 
to the Town the present state of the School Funds, the amount 
of which ever since they have sustained the office of Trustees 
till within the last year has been $2,281.08, on which no 
diminution has occurred. 

"During the past year there has been added by vote of the 
town two instalments of this Town's proportion of the sur- 
plus revenue of the United States, . . . making the total 
amount of said fund $4,501.74, all of which is now on loan 
secured on mortgages of real estate. . . . 

"We have strictly attended to the Votes of the town from 
time to time, by confirming the loans on Notes accompanied 
with mortgages on Real Estates and we have no doubt of 
the ample sufficiency of the above securities." 

The report of the committee was accepted with thanks for 
long and faithful service; but, alas! the school funds, as such, 
remained on the town records only a few years longer. 



I 



21 

In the summer of the year 1843, two events occurred which 
had considerable effect on the later disposition of the school 
fund. The town appropriated a part of the old town hall 
building (now Pierce Hall) for a High School, and the engine 
house was burned. These two events precipitated the ques- 
tion of a new town hall building, which was referred to a 
committee of five. On this committee were appointed Abijah 
W. Goddard, Charles Stearns, Jr., and Daniel Sanderson, who 
were also trustees of the school funds. 

This committee made a lengthy report at the town meet- 
ing of January 30th, 1844. They suggested three different 
available lots, but, in regard to the one which was selected, 
and on which the present town hall stands, the report says: — 

" 'Tho' not so central as the other lot suggested [it] is con- 
sidered by your committee an eligible and beautiful situa- 
tion — combining the advantages of an eligible place for a 
fire engine house and two spacious school rooms which may 
be made in the basement at small additional expense, suffi- 
cient accommodations for 144 scholars; allowing two ample 
rooms for the fire engine and allowing the sale of the old school 
house and lot on^School street." 

The committee further recommended that the surplus 
revenue received from the federal government be taken 
from the school fund and used towards the expense of build- 
ing the proposed combination town hall, engine house and 
schoolhouse, and that the town borrow the balance. 

When today we see the crowds of school children attending 
the primary and grammar schools on the enlarged lot on 
School street we must conclude that the town meeting of that 
day did not look far into the future when the committee's 
report was accepted and adopted, with an appropriation of 
the surplus revenue and $4,000 additional. 

Having taken the step of appropriating part of the school 
fund for other purposes it became easy to use it all, losing 
sight of the terms of the bequest by Edward Devotion. 

At the town meeting in April, 1844, the trustees of the 
school fund reported that, upon further consideration of 
the action by the town in appropriating for the Town Hall 
building the surplus revenue portion of the school fund, 
which amounted to about half of the whole fund, they had 
concluded that it would be for the interest of the town to 



22 

use the remainder of the fund for the same purpose; that in 
order to avoid any danger of reversion the town might be- 
come the borrowers and be responsible to the trustees, as 
individuals would be, by which course the security of the 
fund would be beyond question, and the trustees would be 
relieved of a great share of the perplexing duty incumbent 
upon them, etc. This report was accepted and adopted. 

The town reconsidered the matter of the plans for the town 
hall, as a result of which the engine house was erected as a 
separate building and the School street lot was not sold, 
but did make use of the whole of the school fund, amount- 
ing to $4,789.26, towards the cost of the building. 

The last chapter of the story of the original Devotion 
School Fund may be said to be the report of the trustees in 
March, 1846, which ends with this paragraph: — 

"The Trustees, agreeably to their instructions, having col- 
lected the funds, by transfers of the securities or otherwise, 
and the same having been invested for the promotion of edu- 
cation, in the erection of a Town Hall in which some excel- 
lent school rooms have been provided, believing that the 
objects for which a part of the fund was originally given are 
as fully attained as they would have been under any other 
circumstances, would now most respectfully ask to be dis- 
charged. 

"Charles Stearns, Jun., 
Daniel Sanderson, 
James Robinson, 
Abijah W. Goddard." 

The report was accepted and the committee discharged. 

The rooms in the town hall became badly overcrowded in 
a few years, as well as the schoolhouse on the School street 
lot, and the solution of the problem was the building of the 
Pierce Grammar School on Prospect street in 1855. The 
rooms formerly used for schoolrooms were taken for town 
offices, and in 1857 the hall on the first floor was taken for 
the accommodation of the Public Library. 

After 1846 the school fund disappeared; the accounts in 
succeeding years do not refer to it in any way as in the nature 
of a loan to the town, and both donor and fund appeared to 
be forgotten. 



23 

In 1857, when the PubUc Library was estabUshed, an 
attempt was made to "call in" the school fund for the pur- 
pose of a library and evening school, but without success. 

For another score of years nothing was heard of the Devo- 
tion School Fund, until 1877, when a committee, to whom 
was referred the matter of trust funds, made a report and 
recommended that the legacy should be made good by the 
town. This committee suggested that a note for $2,280.65, 
the amount of the principal of the fund from 1818 to 1838, 
should be authorized by the treasurer, on which note the 
town should pay five per cent annually, to be raised by taxa- 
tion, the amount to be part of the sum appropriated for 
school expenses. This suggestion was referred to a com- 
mittee on school accommodations, which committee never 
reported. 

From 1877 to 1883 nothing was said or done in regard to 
the fund, but in 1883 the School Committee took up the 
matter with a great deal of earnestness. After reciting the 
history of the fund and its complete disappearance, the report 
states : — 

"The gift of Edward Devotion was a trust which the town, 
having accepted, ought to carry out in accordance with the 
wishes of the donor. At the time this was bestowed, it met 
a very considerable portion of the expenses of our public 
schools, and was comparatively of far greater value than a 
gift of the same amount would now possess. For nearly 
a century the trust was executed, and we are now in a better 
position to place ourselves right in the matter than we have 
been for many years. Some action in the direction recom- 
mended by the special committee on trust funds in 1877 
should be taken. 

"The donor contemplated associating his gift with a school 
at the centre of the town as general in its benefits as prac- 
ticable. The High School has this characteristic more fully 
than any other, and is much in need of a new building. If 
the interest on the Devotion Fund from the time of its diver- 
sion were added to the principal, and the fund then suffered 
to accumulate until it should be sufficient to erect a suitable 
High School building, designated in some way to perpetuate 
the memory of this gift, and the town's recognition of the 



24 

purpose to which it was appHed, it would seem to be as fitting 
action as is now practicable." 

In accordance with the suggestions in this report the town 
voted, in 1884, that the Town Treasurer give a note for five 
thousand dollars, payable to the School Committee, declared 
to be the trustees of the Edward Devotion School Fund. 
The appropriation of five thousand dollars to pay the note 
was then passed with the condition that the amount should 
be expended in the enlargement of the High School building, 
and then to cap the climax the town sanctimoniously 
declared — 

"That the bequest of Edward Devotion 'towards building 
and maintaining a school as near the centre of the town as 
shall be agreed upon by the town' having been invested in 
the High School building, the large hall in the same shall 
hereafter be called the 'Edward Devotion Hall' in his honor." 

In the next report of the School Committee this statement 
appears: "A handsome but not expensive tablet, commemo- 
rating the gift of Edward Devotion to the town, has been 
placed on the wall in the main hall" [of the High School]. 

When the old High School was succeeded not many years 
later by the present building, and the present magnificent 
Pierce Grammar School was erected on the old High School 
site, can anybody tell what became of that "handsome but 
not expensive tablet" to the memory of Edward Devotion? 
The writer has asked every one who ought to know, but as 
yet has not succeeded in ascertaining what disposition was 
made of it. 

The rapid increase in population in the north part of the 
town after Beacon street boulevard was built, beginning in 
1887, made imperative the necessity for school accommoda- 
tions in that district. In 1891, at a cost of over sixty thou- 
sand dollars, the town purchased what was called "the Nahum 
Smith estate." This was a part of what older residents knew 
as the Babcock Farm, and was a part of the seventy-six acres 
originally belonging to the Edward Devotion homestead, 
which he inherited from his father and sold, in 1740, to 
Solomon Hill, as has been told. On the property purchased 
stood the old house, built in 1680, and which had been 
occupied continuously, or practically so, from the time it 
was built until purchased by the town. 



25 

The next year (1892) the present primary school building 
was erected, followed a few years later by the companion 
grammar school building, with the old house standing between 
the two. The School Committee named the buildings the 
"Edward Devotion Schools," and in their report for 1892 
outlined a plan for a comprehensive and elaborate develop- 
ment of the area by a group of buildings which when com- 
pleted will be a fitting memorial for any benefactor of the 
town's educational needs. 

The saying is old but true that "we cannot have our cake 
and eat it, too." The Devotion legacy was honestly and intel- 
ligently invested, and the income used for maintaining the 
schools as intended by the giver of the fund from 1762 to 
1837. It was not the fault of the trustees that the war which 
our country fought for its independence brought a deprecia- 
tion in values, and reduced the income from investments. 
No one can blame them for loans to the state in the times of 
need and stress. There was no "graft," and, as the com- 
mittee of 1837 reported, there was "ample sufficiency of the 
security." It would seem, however, that when the town, in 
1846, took the school funds to build the town hall it was 
false to the trust. To be sure, in 1883, the attempt was 
made to clear the record by calling the High School enlarge- 
ment an investment of the Edward Devotion fund. But 
that improvement was imperative, and the money used was 
Devotion Fund money only by the flimsiest of apologies, and 
even then the apology was soon lost sight of, and the memo- 
rial tablet disappeared from view. 

When the School Committee named the Harvard street 
buildings the "Edward Devotion Schools," there was at last 
some fitting memorial to the name of that one of the twenty- 
eight signers of the Muddy River petition for independence 
who thought so much of the home of his parents, who felt so 
great an interest in the place of his own birth and residence 
for seventy-six years, that he bequeathed for the educational 
and religious welfare of the community a goodly share of his 
earthly possessions. Let us hope that never again will the 
town forget Edward Devotion and what he did for the town's 
benefit. 



27 



THE WOODWARD-GOLDSMITH HOUSE, 
CLYDE STREET, BROOKLINE. 

Written by Miss Ellen Chase and Charles F. White. Read before the Society 
by Charles F. White, February 27, 1907. 



The old house which is the subject of this paper stood fac- 
ing the southwest on a httle knoll about fifty feet east of 
Clyde street and seven hundred feet south of the junction 
with Warren street. It has been called the Woodward House, 
although it is not known just w^hen it was built, nor by whom. 

Woodwards were in Brookline very early in its history. In 
1637 a grant of twenty-eight acres, bordering the "cedar 
swamp" on the southwest, was made to Nathaniel Wood- 
ward the elder, who is shown by the Book of Possessions to 
have owned a lot occupying the present northeast corner of 
Washington and Summer streets in Boston, where his resi- 
dence probably was. At the same time Nathaniel Woodward 
had a house and garden on the northerly side of Fort Hill 
near the cove, and he was no doubt a son of Nathaniel the 
elder, so called to distinguish them. In 1637, also, a vote 
was passed in Boston agreeing that John and Robert Wood- 
ward, sons of our brother Nathaniel, should have house lots 
allotted to them. Further, the book of possessions shows by 
an entry in 1639 that "also a great lot be granted to our 
brother Nathaniel Woodward at Muddy River for three 
heads." (It is interesting to note in passing that Mr. Theron 
Royal Woodward of Chicago, who at the time of his death 
last year was engaged upon a genealogy of the Woodwards, 
was a descendant of Nathaniel the elder and his son Nathaniel 
just referred to.) This particular line of Woodwards is not 
the one, however, that is associated with the old Clyde street 
homestead. How they were connected, if at all, we do not 
now know, though it is natural to think that they were. 

A dozen years after the grant of the great lot to Nathaniel, 
that is, in 1651, Thomas Woodward of Boston grants to 
Alexander Beck of Boston four and a quarter acres of land at 
Muddy River, bounded in part by land of Nathaniel Wood- 



28 

ward, the deed being sealed and delivered in presence of John 
Angier and William Aspinwall; showing that Nathaniel and 
Thomas had been adjoining land owners in Muddy River. 

In 1652 Thomas Woodward bought of Zaccheus Bosworth 
a lot of land occupying the southerly corner of Milk and 
Washington streets in Boston. It seems probable that the 
Woodwards of our present interest are descendants of this 
Thomas. 

In examining the records of the first century of settlement 
we must bear in mind that up to 1705 Muddy River was part 
of Boston, consequently births, marriages and deaths were of 
record there. During the same period, and indeed until 1717, 
Muddy River inhabitants were parishioners of the Roxbury 
church, and baptisms and other church records will be found 
there. So intimate were the associations of Brookline and 
Roxbury, however, that entries properly belonging in Boston 
were made in the Roxbury town books; such an instance is 
the entry, — "14 January, 1659-60; born, Thomas Wood- 
ward, son of Thomas." 

Boston birth records next show, 1663, Esther, daughter of 
Thomas and Esther Woodward of Muddy River. Next Rox- 
bury church records show that Thomas Woodward joined the 
church there April 24, 1664. The next Sunday, i. e., May 
first, Thomas and Esther, children of Thomas Woodward, 
were baptised. It is one of the pictures of life — this joining 
by the father and his bringing his two children the next 
week. It clothes with flesh and blood the dry entries two 
and a half centuries old. We get a further touch of life con- 
cerning the mother of these children when we read, — "SJune, 
1673, Esther, wife of Thomas Woodward, entered full com- 
munion." The next Boston entry is the birth on June 24, 
1667, of Ehzabeth, daughter of Thomas and Judith. (I think 
the entry of Judith as the mother's name is due to confusing 
the names of two Hebrew heroines.) Then, from Roxbury, — 
"30 July, 1667, baptised Ehzabeth Woodward, daughter of 
Thomas"; on the 13th of January, 1668, the birth of Mary, 
daughter of Thomas and Esther, and her baptism, at Rox- 
bury, on the 17th of January of the same year; in 1670, the 
birth of Rachel, daughter of Thomas and Esther, and the 
baptism at Roxbury, November 27, 1670, of Rachel, daugh- 



29 

ter of Thomas. Next, the Boston record enters the birth of — 
— ,son of Thomas and Esther, Sept. 10, 1673, and the Roxbury 
church records give on October 19, 1673, the baptism of 
Robert, son of Thomas Woodward. The last Roxbury entry 
is the baptism, March 25, 1675, of Mehitable Woodward, 
daughter of Thomas, her name being omitted from the Boston 
records. 

We get another ghmpse of this family from the Roxbury 
church records, learning that in 1681, "23d January, Thomas 
Woodward Jr., Esther Woodward and Hannah Woodward 
with Sarah Devotion, all these take hold on the covenant." 
Thomas Woodward was then twenty-one years of age, and 
Esther seventeen; Hannah, I cannot identify. But in 1685, 
when also seventeen, Mary Woodward signed the covenant. 

It is something noticeable that during this period of twenty- 
five years, from 1660 to 1685, we do not find that Thomas 
Woodward held any offices in Brookline; for in those early 
days of scanty population almost every man was called upon 
to serve, and punished by fine if he did not. Perhaps some 
physical disability excused him. That he was here, never- 
theless, is shown by the birth entry of Esther, 1663, given 
above, and by a tax list for 1674 printed in the Record Com- 
missoner's reports, wherein Thomas Woodward of Muddy 
River is taxed three shillings for his "county rate" and the 
same amount for his "poor rate." The Roxbury church 
records enter his death Sept. 10, 1685, while the Roxbury 
town record gives the additional detail of "Thomas Wood- 
ward, Senior." We get our last glance at the first genera- 
tion in the tax list of 1693, which contains the name "Widow 
Woodward." 

We do not know precisely where in Brookline Thomas^ 
senior lived; only that in 1651 he sold some land near the 
"cedar swamp," or in what is now Long wood. 

Thomas^ junior we can locate with more certainty and 
identify him as an owner of the property on Clyde street, by 
the succession of the deeds. The items on record regarding 
him after his joining the Roxbury church are as follows: In 
1687 he is on the tax list for Muddy River as owning 6 acres 
of land, 2 cows, 1 heifer, 1 horse, 12 sheep and two buildings, 
and his total tax, including two polls (probably himself and 



30 

hired man), was 5 shillings 4 pence; in 1691 and 93 his name 
appears on poll lists. 

In 1694 his name first occurs in the town records, when he 
is chosen fence viewer. He held the usual round of local 
offices, serving most as tythingman, at intervals from 1707 
to 1729. He seems to have been firmly set against serving 
as constable, being several times fined for refusing to serve, 
one of the fines being recorded as £4 4s. The record of his 
first election, made by Samuel Sewal, Jr., town clerk, is brief 
enough: — "Chose Thomas Woodward constable, Dropt him." 
The office of constable seems to have been generally unpopu- 
lar from the chief duty connected with it, that of collecting 
the taxes. No doubt the people looked upon the constable 
much as the people of Thrums did upon Weary world, whom 
they elected policeman. This is the Thomas Woodward 
whose name is in the list of petitioners for the incorporation 
of the town in 1705. 

I have found no record of Thomas^ Woodward's marriage. 
His wife's name wasTryphena. Roxbury church records of 
baptisms as printed omit 1688 to 1750, but Boston and Brook- 
line birth records supply data regarding the children of 
Thomas^ and Tryphena, as follows: — "16 May, 1690, Mary; 
26 Sept., 1692, Thomas^; 30 Jan., 1694, Tryphena; 11 Sept., 
1697, John ; 9 Nov., 1699, Hannah; , Sarah; , Eliza- 
beth; 18 June, 1709, Joseph." 

Of these children, Sarah and Joseph died before 1729, while 
Elizabeth seems not to have been party to the division of the 
estate. Unfortunately Boston no longer kept our records, and 
Brookline death records do not begin until 1761. 

We cannot be exact as to w^hen Thomas^ Woodward pos- 
sessed the Clyde street property, but in 1699 he buys two 
parcels of land, one from Uriah Clark and a second from 
Joseph^ White. These were recorded in Suffolk deeds, Vol. 19, 
pp. 306-9, but some vandal has cut from that book pages 283 
to 340 and the descriptions are thus lost. 

This Joseph^ White, second son of John^ senior, was grand- 
father to Deaconjoseph White, who later bought the house on 
Clyde street from Thomas^ Woodward's grandson Thomas'*. 
In April, 1702, Joseph Buckminster of Muddy River, tanner, 
and Martha, his wife, deed to Thomas Woodward of Muddy 
River, yeoman, twenty-two acres of land at Muddy River, 



31 

bounded northerly by Josiah Winchester, easterly by Dorman 
Marean and Joshua Child, southerly by Thomas Woodward, 
and westerly by Jonathan Torrey — names associated with 
the southerly side of Brookline, between the present Clyde 
and Newton streets. 

It now becomes of interest to notice the origin of Clyde 
street, where this old homestead was located. At the March 
meeting of 1714 it was voted, "That the southwesterly end of 
the Town have a way laid out for them by the said Town." 

Up to this time there was no public way in the town con- 
necting Newton street with the Sherborn road, and passage 
to and fro was no doubt over private ways. These were rude 
roads through the woods and meadows, similar no doubt to 
those charming cart paths which still exist in the wooded, 
rocky tract of the town behind the Country Club, toward 
Hammond street. They followed the surface of the ground 
with almost no attempt at grading, winding and twisting to 
avoid trees and ledges, with an occasional bridge where a 
brook must be crossed. Some of these ways developed into 
streets, as did Goddard avenue, but most of them disappeared 
with the changes of time. One such cross way left Warren 
street about two hundred feet west of its junction with Cot- 
tage street. Passing down the steep slope, it was carried 
over the little stream of spring water by the bridge of field 
stones which is still there, and the low, grassy dyke which 
crossed the meadow can also be plainly seen. This old way 
extended through to the Goddard farm. At the Warren 
street end was a gate, and just at the left as one entered was a 
deep well fitted with a great octagonal oak pump, with 
a heavy wrought-iron pump handle. The water of this well 
needed no ice in summer. (There are some of our number 
who can recall using this old cart way before it was closed, 
about fifty years ago.) 

At the November town meeting of 1715 town clerk John 
Seaver records — "Voted, That there should be an open way 
laid out from the south part of Brookline, to wit, from the 
road that leadeth from Jamaica to Erossamond Drew's saw- 
mill along by Joshua Child's house to the Country Road that 
leadeth from Roxbury to Newton through BrookHne along 
by Leftenant Thomas Gardner's house." In October, 1717, 
the town voted, "That the New Way laid out between Isaac 



32 

Child's and Thomas Woodward's be repaired and made feiz- 
able at the Town's cost." 

We notice the change from Joshua Child to Isaac Child in 
these votes, two years apart. Isaac in 1717 was twenty-nine 
years of age, a son of Joshua. He had shortly before mar- 
ried Elizabeth Weld, and had no doubt established himself 
on land formerly his father's, and his house was located either 
where the "Hyde" house is now, on Newton street, or perhaps 
on the northerly side of the street upon the land of the late 
Mr. Willard Humphrey. 

An entry printed on page 110 of Brookline Records recites 
the vote of 1715, and proceeds, "which accordingly was 
effected by the selectmen, viz., Capt. Samuel Aspinwall, 
Thomas Stedman and John Winchester, Jr., who have agreed 
with all the proprietors, and the Damage by running said way 
through their properties has been paid as appears in the 
Account Book of said Town of Brooklyn. The aforesaid 
Highway beginning as aforesaid near Isaac Child's house on 
the east of said house as it is staked out and running northerly 
through Isaac Child's land to the land of Samuel Newel and 
then turning a little, toward the east, running through the 
land of Joseph Dudley Esq'r then turning northerly and run- 
ning through or upon part of Joshua Child's land, being part 
of Bowen's Farm so called, then entering upon the Land of 
Thomas Woodward to the Land of Joseph White, then turn- 
ing a little toward the East, running to the land of the Heirs 
of Jonathan Torrey, Late of Brooklyn, alias Mudeyriver, De- 
ceased. Then running Northerly to the Road or lane known 
by the name of Woodward's lane to the Road commonly 
known by the name of Sherbourn Road." 

Twenty-seven years have passed since Thomas"^ Woodward 
made his earlier purchases of land. The sons are grown when 
we find (Suffolk Deeds, 56-156) that "11 Feb., 1726 Thos. & 
Tryphena Woodward convey a parcel of orchard and meadow 
land to their son John." 

Thomas'" Woodward, Sr., died about 1731, having made his 
sons Thomas'^ and John'^ executors of his will, with power to 
decide whether the portions of the four sisters should be paid 
in money or lands. They elected to divide the lands, as is 
shown by an indenture entered on April 26, 1731 (Suffolk 
Deeds, Vol. 56, p. 176). The real estate included the home- 



33 

stead of eleven acres and four other lots — the aggregate being 
forty-nine and one-half acres. One-half the mansion house, 
barns and out-buildings, with all moveables, and one-half the 
use of the lands were given the widow during widowhood, 
and to the three unmarried daughters the use of the best 
chamber, if agreeable. All the children were to share and 
share alike in the real estate, save that Thomas^, the eldest 
son, was to have a double portion as the Province Law directed. 
Six years were allowed for the settlement, and in April, 1738, 
the papers were signed and acknowledged before Samuel^ 
White, Justice of the Peace. 

We may note in passing that Mary Woodward married 
James Goddard in 1713; Tryphena married William Dyer in 
1741 ; and Hannah died in Brookline, unmarried, in 1764. 
Thomas^ died in Brookline, probably unmarried, in 1768; 
John^ Woodward (Brookline Town Records, Vol. 3, p. 208; 
Vol. 4, p. 28) married Nov. 30, 1722, Mary Goldsmith of Wen- 
ham. They had children — Joseph, born Dec. 9, 1723, died 
Nov. 19, 1796; John, born Feb. 23, 1725; Thomas, born 
April 12, 1730. 

John^ held a number of offices in Brookline and died Feb. 15, 
1770. His widow Mary died in April, 1779, aged 87 years. 
She was the giver, in 1770, of two cups for the communion 
service of the First Parish church. They are still preserved. 
As has so often been the case, the homestead passed to the 
youngest of the three sons of John^. 

I have not found record of the marriage of Thomas^ Wood- 
ward, but his wife's name was Mehitable, as appears from 
town records, deeds, etc. Their children were: Mehetable, 

born March 11, 1757; Sarah, baptised Aug. 27, 1758; , born 

April 23, 1760, died next day; Thomas, born June 5, 1762; 
Benjamin, born March 11, 1764; John Goldsmith, born Dec. 6, 
1766; Elizabeth, born Feb. 15, 1769. 

Of the father, Thomas'*, it may also be said that he served 
the town in a number of capacities, as the records set forth. 

At some date near 1770 the Woodward homestead passed 
from their possession by deed to Deacon Joseph'* White of 
Brookline, and appears to have been bought for the use of 
his son Daniel^, since in 1771 Daniel White's name replaces 
that of Thomas* Woodward in the regular sequence of the 
Brookhne tax and valuation lists. These manuscript lists 



34 

in the town clerk's office, covering a number of years, are full of 
interest. For many years they uniformly began with the Griggs 
farm near Allston, and followed the line of Harvard street, 
side-stepping a little to take in the few who lived on upper 
Washington or on School street. Passing down to the 
"Punch Bowl" the list followed out the Sherborn road, i. e., 
Walnut street, and so along the side of Fisher's Hill to Heath 
street, with another offset to take in Col. Isaac Gardner's on 
Brighton street; thence up Heath street to the Newton line, 
whence a jump through the woods reached Drew's sawmill; 
from there down Newton street through Clyde to Warren, 
and so to the meeting house, thus completing the circuit of 
the town so far as habitations were concerned. 

This is not the time to enter into much detail as to the 
Whites, who owned the house for some sixteen years. Deacon 
Joseph"* White, born 1702, died 1777, was the eldest child of 
Deacon Benjamin^ White and his wife, Margaret Weld. He 
lived just west of the present junction of Heath street with 
Penniman's lane. He served the town in various capacities 
for fifty-three years and was deacon for twenty-one years. 
His estate comprised one hundred and seventy-one acres in 
Brookline, with seventy-six acres in Newton, as well as land in 
Needham. His wife was Sarah, daughter of Ebenezer Crafts 
of Roxbury, and all of their eight children lived to mature 
age. Two of his sons served in the early days of the Revo- 
lutionary War, Daniel^ being second lieutenant in Captain 
Thomas^ White's company, which marched on the Lexington 
alarm. The descendants of Deacon Joseph White are still 
numerous in this part of Massachusetts. 

Lieut. Daniel^ White was born in 1739 and in 1772 married 
Mary, daughter of Isaac Child, Jr., and Elizabeth Weld, and 
granddaughter of Isaac Child, Sr., and his wife Elizabeth 
Weld, he whose house was near the southerly end of Clyde 
street. The children were : Bartholomew®, born 1773, married in 
1798 Hannah, daughter of Aaron and Hannah (Richards) 
Davis of West Roxbury. He lived many years in the old- 
fashioned house that is on the northeast corner of Weld and 
Corey streets. He died in 1855 and was buried in the old 
burying ground near Lagrange street onCenter street , West Rox- 
bury. Anna, born Oct., 1775, and Hervey, born May, 1781, were 
the only other children, and I have been unable to learn any- 



35 

thing of their story further than that they Hved to maturity 
at least. Daniel^ White served the town from 1772, when he 
was chosen Surveyor of Highways, until 1785, when his last 
service was upon a committee, with Jonathan Dana and 
Benjamin^ White, to consider and report on the matter of 
"selling spaces or spots on which to build pews in the meet- 
ing-house." 

That Daniel^ White ceased to live in the Clyde street house 
about 1780 is proved by an old contract of lease entered into 
that year between him and his elder brother Samuel'"^. This 
lease, found among some old papers by Dr. Walter Channing, 
has come into the possession of the Historical Society. The tax 
lists also indicate his removal to his father's homestead by 
the change in location of his name therein. Daniel^ White 
died about 1813 or 1814, and Mary his wife in 1829. 

By deed of April 2, 1785, Daniel and Mary White sold the 
property to John Corey. The earliest entry of John Corey's 
name in Brookline town records is for 1787, when he and Ben- 
jamin° Davis, grandson of Deacon Ebenezer^ Davis, are elected 
hogreaves. He served in other capacities until 1703, when 
by a curious coincidence his last recorded service is again 
with Benjamin Davis, this time as highway surveyor. In 
what way, if any, John Corey was connected with the Coreys 
of Washington street, I have not ascertained, but it is sug- 
gestive that in 1807 Timothy and Elijah Corey are guardians 
for his minor children, after his death Oct. 6, 1803. He was 
born in 1759 or 1760, and married in Brookline Nov. 26, 1788, 
Elizabeth Corey. She died here Sept. 25, 1845. Their chil- 
dren were: Elizabeth, born 1789; Harriet, 1792; Anna, 1796; 
and Caroline, 1802. 

The next transfer of the land is in 1819, when John M. 
Upham of Newi:on, in right of Anna, his wife, and Elizabeth 
Corey of Newton, spinster, for $1466.67 sell to Erastus Champ- 
ney, housewright, two-thirds of a tract of fifteen acres of land 
with house and barn, in common with the undivided third 
owned by Caroline Corey, a minor. Harriet Corey, the 
fourth sister, had died in 1813. Champney at the same time 
mortgages the estate to John M. Upham, et al. 

Erastus Champney was a native of Keene, N. H. His 
first wife was Sarah Sumner Winchester, daughter of Nathaniel 
Winchester and Sarah Davis. They were married by Dr. 



36 

John Pierce Feb. 24, 1807, and their five children as shown 
by the church records were Nathaniel Winchester, baptised 
Jan. 1, 1809, died March 5, 1809; Erastus, baptised April 13, 

1810, died April 21, 1810; Joseph Addison, baptised Aug. 4, 

1811, died Oct. 21, 1811; Erastus, baptised Sept. 6, 1812; 
Sarah Ann, baptised Dec. 29, 1816, died Oct. 4, 1817. 

The wife Sarah died in 1817, and he married second, March 
15, 1819, Hannah Homer Hunting of Brookline. He mar- 
ried third, May 1, 1823, Abigail Prentiss of Roxbury. Eras- 
tus Champney was chosen tythingman in company with 
Robert Sharp Davis, Sr., in 1812, and was hogreave in 
1820 and 1824. 

In 1825 John M. Upham of Newton, yeoman, with Benja- 
min Richardson and Elizabeth (Corey) his wife, sells the 
estate described in the mortgage from Champney to Upham, 
et a/., to hold subject to redemption, to Elisha Wheeler. The 
same day Caroline Corey of Roxbury, spinster, sells to EUsha 
Wheeler her undivided third of the estate descended from her 
father, John Corey. Erastus Champney, cabinet maker, also 
conveys at the same time to Elisha Wheeler his interest in 
two-thirds of the estate. Two days later, i. e., Oct. 24, 1825, 
Elisha Wheeler of Boston, trader, and Betsey his wife convey 
to Sarah Dunn of Brookline fifteen acres, formerly part of the 
farm of John Corey, descended to his three children, Eliza- 
beth, Anna and Caroline. In April, 1830, John Dunn of 
Providence and Sarah his wife sell to John Kettle, merchant, 
the estate conveyed to Sarah Dunn by Elisha Wheeler. 
On May 14, 1836, John Kettle of Boston, merchant, quit- 
claims to Luke Baldwin of Roxbury, merchant, the estate for 
w^hich he recovered judgment at Dedham in 1832 on fore- 
closure of a mortgage. On May 18, 1836, Luke Baldwin 
conveys the property to John Hunt of Boston, housewright, 
being the buildings and fifteen acres of land conveyed 
to him by John and Susan Kettle. In 1837 John and 
Sarah Hunt convey to George W. Goldsmith of Roxbury 
the estate conveyed to Hunt by Luke Baldwin. In his 
possession it remained forty-five years, to the time of his 
death, and in possession of his heirs for some twenty years 
more. 

George Washington Goldsmith was born in Andover, 
March 29, 1808, son of John and Mary Goldsmith. He died 



37 

Dec. 14, 1882, aged 74. He married first, at Roxbury, 
Dec. 23, 1832, Lucinda Hutchins, born June 17, 1806, at 
Bristol, Maine. She died Aug. 16, 1838, leaving one daugh- 
ter, Emily Ann, born Sept. 16, 1837, died about Jan. 10, 1865. 

Mr. Goldsmith married second, Aug. 18, 1839, Ruth 
Hutchins, also of Bristol, Maine, and, I infer, sister of his first 
wife. She was bom July 17, 1808. Their children were: 
George, born March 5, 1840; Abby Jane, born Dec. 9, 1841, 
married Sept. 27, 1863, Levi Hastings of Ashburnham, son of 
Joseph B. and Adeline Hastings; Ellen, born Nov. 18, 1843, 
married Sept. 30, 1865, Edgar N., son of Seaman and Mary 
Lull, born West Safford (or Stafford), Conn., a lawyer, re- 
sided in Tolland, Conn.; (male infant), born Feb. 13, 

1846, died at once; Ruth, born March 23, 1848. 

Mr. Goldsmith appears to have married a fourth time, as 
the town records give the birth in 1853 of his daughter Clara, 
with the note "dau. of Anna of England." Clara Goldsmith 
married Mr. George H. Cowan, the next neighbor to the north 
on Clyde street. The youngest child, Henry W. Goldsmith, 
now lives at Danvers. 

In 1903 by settlement of the estate of George W. Gold- 
smith the title passed to his son-in-law, Mr. Hastings, and 
from him to the present owner, under whom the ancient house 
was torn down and the land divided for sale. 

The demolition of this house gave opportunity to note 
in detail the framing and construction, and to measure and 
photograph these points. It was of massive hewn-oak timber, 
with a great central chimney. The body of the house meas- 
ured outside 36 feet by 18 feet, with the old-fashioned lean-to 
on the rear, giving the picturesque long slope to the roof at 
the back. The framed walls were interlined with brick laid 
in yellow clay, which was also used to lay the bricks of the 
chimney below the roof. The small amount of cross parti- 
tion, which with the huge chimney divided the rooms, was 
made of paneled work of white pine. The long kitchen in 
the lean-to had a large fireplace and brick oven, while each 
of the four principal rooms had a fireplace. Portions of the 
frame and panel work were removed to Aspin wall hill and incor- 
porated in a manner to be readily seen in a building there. 

Thus passed one of the last, but not the very last, of the 
Brookline homesteads which had seen almost two centuries 
of the town's life. 



No. 9016. 

dommonwcaltb of fiDaeeacbusetts* 



J8e it ftnohin That whereas Rufus George Frederick Candage, 
Edward Wild Baker, Julia Goddard, John Emory Hoar, 
Harriet Alma Cummings, Charles Henry Stearns, James 
Macmaster Codman, Jr., Charles French Read, Edwin 
Birchard Cox, Willard Y. Gross, Charles Knowles Bolton, 
Tappan Eustis Francis, Desmond FitzGerald, D. S. Sanford, 
and Martha A. Kittredge have associated themselves with the inten- 
tion of forming a corporation under the name of the 

BrooftUne iDistorical Societi?, 

for the purpose of the study of the history of the town of Brookline, 
Massachusetts, its societies, organizations, famiUes, individuals, and 
events, the collection and preservation of its antiquities, the establish- 
ment and maintenance of an historical library, and the publication from 
time to time of such information relating to the same as shall be deemed 
expedient, and have complied with the provisions of the statutes of this 
Commonwealth in such case made and provided, as appears from the 
certificate of the President, Treasurer, and Directors of said corporation, 
duly approved by the Commissioner of Corporations and recorded in 
this office ; 

i^ob), tljextiaxe, I, William M. Olin, Secretary of the Commonweath of 
Massachusetts, ijo f)erebg ctttifg, that said Rufus George Frederick 
Candage, Edward Wild Baker, Julia Goddard, John Emory 
Hoar, Harriet Alma Cummings, Charles Henry Stearns, 
James Macmaster Codman, Jr., Charles French Read, Edwin 
Birchard Cox, Willard Y. Gross, Charles Knowles Bolton, 
Tappan Eustis Francis, Desmond FitzGerald, D. S. Sanford, 
and Martha A. Kittredge, their associates and successors, are legally 
organized and established as and are hereby made an existing corpora- 
tion under the name of the 

Broohline Ibistorical Societi?, 

with the powers, rights and privileges, and subject to the limitations, 
duties and restrictions, which by law appertain thereto. 

aSaitness my official signature hereunto sub- 
scribed, and the seal of the Commonwealth 
of Massachusetts hereunto affixed, this 
twenty-ninth day of April, in the year of our 
Lord one thousand nine hundred and one. 
Wm. M. Olin, 
Secretary of the Commonwealth. 




BROOKLINE HISTORICAL SOCIETY. 



OFFICERS AND COMMITTEES. 
1908. 
Trustees. 

RUFUS G. F. CANDAGE, President. MRS. MARTHA A. KiTTREDGE. 

Miss Julia Goddard. Charles H. Stearns, Vice-Pres. 

Mrs. Susan V. Griggs. Charles F. White. 

Edward W. Baker, Clerk and Treasurer. 

Committee on Rooms. 

Miss Julia Goddard. Mrs. Susan Vining Griggs. 

Charles H. Stearns. 
RUFUS G. F. Candage, President, \ ^^ ^xr • • 
EDWARD W. Baker, Clerk, ) ex-omcto. 

Committee on Papers. 

Miss Ellen Chase. Charles H. Stearns. 

Charles F. White. 

Committee on Membership. 

George S. Mann, Chairman. James Adams. 

Miss Louise Howe. George F. Dearborn. 

WiLLARD Y. Gross. 

Committee on Library. 

Charles F. Read. Henry D. Eustis. 

Luther M. Merrill. Frederick H. Hedge. 

John H. Sherburne, Jr. 

Committee on Finance. 

James M. Codman, Jr. Charles H. Stearns. 

RUFUS G. F. Candage, President, ex-officio. 

Committee on Publications. 

Charles F. Read. Frederick L. Gay. 

Franklin W. Hobbs. 



RuFUS G. F. Candage, 
Edward W. Baker, 



> ex- off i 



MEMBERS. 



iBenefactors. 

Adams, Benjamin F. 
Adams, Frank Sydney 
Adams, James 

Addison, Daniel Dulany (D. D.) 
Arnold, Mrs. Tirzah S. 
Aspinwall, Thomas 
"Atkinson, Mrs. Mary C. 

Bailey, Arthur H. 

Baker, Charles M. 

Baker, Mrs. Edith C. 

Baker, Edward Wild 

Bates, Jacob P. 

Beck, Frederick 

Bickford, Scott F. 

Blanchard, Benjamin S. (M. D.) 

Boit, Mrs. Robert A. 

Bowker, Edwin P. 

Burdett, Frank W. 



tLife Members. 

Belmont, Mass. 
118 Mason terrace. 
90 Longwood avenue. 
47 Garrison road. 
81 Davis avenue. 
14 Hawthorn road 
Heath avenue. 

195 Davis avenue. 

Ill Ivy street. 

Ill Ivy street. 

29 Vernon street. 

222 Summer street, Boston 

43 Davis avenue. 
24 Kilsyth road. 

432 Washington street. 
19 Colchester street. 
224 Aspinwall avenue. 

44 Harvard avenue. 



Cabot, Elizabeth Rogers 
tCandage, Rufus George Frederick 
tCandage, Mrs. Ella Marie 

Candage, Robert Brooks 

Carroll, B. Frank 

Chandler, Alfred Dupont 

Channing, Walter (M. D.) 

Chase, Caleb 

Chase, Miss Ellen 

Clapp, Miss Mary C. 

Clement, Thomas W. 

Codman, James Macmaster 

Codman, James Macmaster, Jr. 

Cole, Samuel W. 

Comstock, William O. 
tConant, Lewis S. 

Conant, Nathaniel 

CooHdge, Miss Ellen G. 

Cox, Edwin Birchard 

Craig, William 
tCummings, Prentiss 

tDane, Ernest B. 
Davenport, Francis H. 
♦Deceased. 



Heath street. 

20 Kent street. 

20 Kent street. 

20 Kent street. 

217 Walnut street. 

411 Washington street. 

27 Chestnut Hill avenue. 

1546 Beacon street. 

Rawson road. 

Newton street. 

11 Davis avenue. 

Warren street. 

Warren street. 

56 Thomdike street. 

54 Dudley street. 

72 Park street. 

25 Gardner road. 

Harvard street. 

125 Buckminster road. 

15 Columbia street. 

187 Gardner road. 

Heath street. 
Kennard road. 



44 



Davis, George P. 
Dearborn, George F. 
Doliber, Thomas 
tDoliber, Mrs. Ada Ripley 
Dolliver, Mrs. Ella Augusta 
Driscoll, Michael 
Duncklee, Charles B. 



16 Emerson street. 

125 Park street. 

Goddard avenue. 

Goddard avenue. 

Humboldt avenue, Roxbury. 

9 Kent street. 

683 Washington street. 



Estabrook, Willard W. 
tEustis, Miss Elizabeth M. 
tEustis, Henry D. 

Eustis, Joseph Tracy 
tEustis, Miss Mary S. B. 

Fay, James H. 
tFish, Mrs. Clara P. 

Fish, Frederick P. 

FitzGerald, Desmond 
tFitzpatrick, Thomas B. 

Flanders, Mrs. Helen Burgess 

Fleming, John F. 
*Folsom, Albert Alonzo 

Folsom, Mrs. Julia E. 

Francis, Carleton S. (M. D.) 

Francis, George H. (M. D.) 

Francis, Tappan Eustis (M. D.) 

French, Alexis H. 

Gaither, Charles Perry 
tGay, Frederick Lewis 

Gibbs, Emery B. 
t Goddard, Miss Julia 
t Goddard, Mary Louisa 

Gray, William H. 

Griggs, Mrs. Susan Vining 

Guild, Mrs. Sarah E. M. 

Hedge, Frederick H. 
tHill, WilHam H. 
Hoar, David Blakely 
Hobbs, Franklin W. 
Hopkins, Charles A. 
Hook, Miss Maria C. 
Hough, Benjamin Kent 
Howe, Miss Harriet Augusta 
Howe, Miss Louise 
Hunt, William D. 
Hunt, Mrs. William D. 
•Deceased. 



60 Longwood avenue. 
1020 Beacon street. 
1020 Beacon street. 
93 Ivy street. 
1020 Beacon street. 

Linden place. 
9 Prescott street. 
9 Prescott street. 
410 Washington street. 
15 Winthrop road. 
37 Auburn street. 
295 Pond avenue. 
23 Garrison road. 
23 Garrison road. 
26 Davis avenue. 
295 Walnut street. 
35 Davis avenue. 
35 Cypress street. 

1100 Beacon street. 

Holland road. 

42 Alton place. 

Warren street. 

6 Commonwealth ave.. Boston. 

73 Middlesex road, C. H. 

555 Washington street. 

Elm place. 

440 Boylston street. 
81 Marion street. 
100 High street. 
78 Upland road. 
80 Winthrop road. 
Newton street. 

29 Bartlett crescent. 
Linden street. 
Linden street. 

30 Warren street. 
30 Warren street. 



45 



Jones, Mrs. Clarence W. 
!■ Jones, Jerome 



101 St. Mary's street. 
101 Summit avenue. 



Kenrick, Alfred Eugene 
t Kimball, Miss Helen Frances 
t Kimball, Lulu Stacy 
tKittredge, Mrs. Martha A. 



71 Gorham avenue. 
294 Kent street. 
294 Kent street. 
Gardner road. 



Lamb, Henry W. 
Lamb, Miss Augusta T. 
Lauriat, Charles E. 
LeMoyne, Macpherson 
Lincoln, Albert L. 
Lincoln, William E. 
Lincoln, Mrs. William E. 
Lincoln, William Henry 
Little, James Lowell 
Longyear, John M. 
Luke, Otis H. 
Lyon, William Henry (D. D.) 



138 High street. 
138 High street. 
1049 Beacon street. 
93 Pleasant street. 
Walnut place. 
54 Gardner road. 
54 Gardner road. 
Beech road. 
Goddard avenue. 
Leicester street. 
1223 Beacon street. 
353 Walnut street. 



Mann, George Sumner 
Mason, Frank H. 
Maxwell, George Frederic 
Merrill, Frank A. 
Merrill, Luther M. 
Mortimer, Sara White Lee 
Mo wry, Oscar B. 
McKey, Joseph 
McKey, Mrs. W. R. 
Murphy, James S. 



1760 Beacon street. 
21 Fuller street. 
37 Harris street. 
123 Dean road. 
62 Green street. 
1410 Beacon street. 
136 St. Paul street. 
24 Stearns road. 
18 Stearns road. 
1575 Beacon street. 



Norton, Fred L. 



147 Winchester street. 



O'Brion, Thomas L. 
Otis, Herbert Foster 



9 Regent circle. 
165 Fisher avenue. 



Palmer, Mrs. Emma L. 
Parsons, William E. 
Pattee, Mrs. Eleanor T. 
Pearson, Charles Henry 
t Perry, Arthur 
Poor, Miss Agnes Blake 
Poor, Mrs. Lillie Oliver 
Poor, Mrs. Mary W. 
Poor, James Ridgway 
Pope, Arthur Wallace 
Porter, Georgia M. Whidden 



Newton street. 
92 Marion street. 
Ivy street. 
350 Tappan street. 

389 Walnut street. 
201 Buckminster road. 
389 Walnut street. 
201 Buckminster road. 
1763 Beacon street. 
69 Longwood avenue. 



46 



Read, Charles French 12 Keiffer street. 

tRichardson, Frederic Leopold Wm. Warren street. 
Richardson, Henry Hobson Cottage street. 

Ritchie, Andrew Montgomery 268 Walnut street. 

Rooney, James C. 50 Kent street. 



Sabine, George K. (M. D.) 

Salisbury, William Cabot Gorham 
'Sargent, Charles Sprague 

Saunders, Joseph H. (M. D.) 

Saxe, John W. 

Seaver, William James 

Sedgwick, William T. 

Shaw, James F. 

Sherburne, John H., Jr. 

Snow, Franklin A. 

Spencer, Charles A. W. 

Stearns, Charles Henry 

Steams, James Pierce 

Stearns, William Bramhall 
"Stevens, Mrs. Mary Louise 

Stone, Galen L. 

Storrow, Charles 

Swan, Reuben S. 
''Swan, Robert T. 

Swan, Mrs. Robert T. 



30 Irving street. 

3 Parkman terrace. 
Warren street. 
219 Harvard street. 
324 Tappan street. 
76 Longwood avenue. 
20 Edgehill road. 
Powell street. 
262 Walnut street. 
523 Washington street. 
1 Harvard street. 
152 Harvard street. 

31 Pleasant street. 
43 Pleasant street. 
39 Columbia street. 
Buckminster road. 
112 High street. 

91 Babcock street. 
1015 Beabon street. 
1015 Beacon street. 



tTalbot, Fritz B. (M. D.) 
Thayer, Frank Bartlett 

Utley, Charles H. 

Walker, Nathaniel U. 
Ware, Henry 
Warren, Edward R. 
Watson, Miss Mary 
Watson, Mrs. Eliza Tilden Goddard 
Wead, Leslie C. 
Whitcomb, Lawrence 
White, Charles F. 
White, Mrs. Louie D. 
White, Francis A. 
White, William H. 
White, William Howard 
White, William Orne (D. D.) 
Whiting, John K. 
Whitman, William 
Whitney, Henry M. 
•Deceased. 



131 Sewall avenue. 
1668 Beacon street. 

23 Regent circle. 

Buckminster road. 

1 Perrin road. 

76 Walnut street. 

Goddard avenue. 

Goddard avenue. 

220 Aspinwall avenue. 

128 Crafts road. 

Warren street. 

Warren street. 

Warren street. 

93 Dean road. 

164 Chestnut Hill avenue. 

222 High street. 

Longwood avenue. 

Goddard avenue. 

619 Boylston street. 



47 



Wight, Lewis 
tWightman, George H. 
Willcut, Levi Lincoln 
Williams, Charles A. 
Williams, Mrs. EUzabeth Whitney- 
Williams, Moses 
Woods, J. Henry (M. D.) 



Rawson road. 
Hawes street. 
9 Longwood avenue. 
35 Walnut place. 
50 Edgehill road. 
Warren street. 
39 Salisbury road. 



Young, WilUam Hill 



21 John street. 



CORRESPONDING MEMBER. 
Ricker, Mrs. Emeline Carr Dorchester. 



BROOKLINE HISTORICAL SOCIETY. 



BY-LAWS. 

ARTICLE I. 

NAME, 

The name of this corporation shall be Brookline Historical 
Society. 

ARTICLE II. 

OBJECTS. 

The objects of this Society shall be the study of the history of 
the town of Brookline, Massachusetts, its societies, organizations, 
families, individuals, events ; the collection and preservation of its 
antiquities, the establishment and maintenance of an historical 
library, and the publication from time to time of such information 
relating to the same as shall be deemed expedient. 

ARTICLE III. 

MEMBERSHIP. 

Any person of moral character who shall be nominated and 
approved by the Board of Trustees may be elected to membership 
by ballot of two-thirds of the members present and voting thereon 
at any regular meeting of the Society. Each person so elected 
shall pay an admission fee of three dollars, and an annual assess- 
ment of two dollars ; and any member who shall fail for two con- 
secutive years to pay the annual assessment shall cease to be a 
member of this Society ; provided, however, that any member who 
shall pay twenty-five dollars in any one year may thereby become 
a Life member ; and any member who shall pay fifty dollars in any 
one year may thereby become a Benefactor of the Society, and 
thereafter shall be free from all dues and assessments. The money 
received from Life members and Benefactors shall constitute a 
fund, of which not more than twenty per cent, together with the 
annual income therefrom, shall be spent in any one year. 

The Society may elect Honorary and Corresponding members 
in the manner in which annual members are elected, but they shall 
have no voice in the management of the Society, and shall not be 
subject to fee or assessment. 

ARTICLE IV. 

CERTIFICATES. 

Certificates signed by the President and the Clerk may be issued 
to all persons who become Life members, and to Benefactors. 



ARTICLE V. 

OFFICERS. 

The officers of this Society shall be seven Trustees, a President, 
a Vice-President, a Secretary (who shall be Clerk of the Society 
and may also be elected to fill the office of Treasurer), and a 
Treasurer, who, together, shall constitute the Board of Trustees. 
The Trustees, Clerk, and Treasurer shall be chosen by ballot at 
the annual meeting in January, and shall hold office for one year, 
and until others are chosen and qualified in their stead. The 
President and Vice-President shall be chosen by the Board of 
Trustees from their number at their first meeting after their 
election, or at an adjournment thereof. 

ARTICLE VI. 

MEETINGS. 

The annual meeting of this Society shall be held on the fourth 
Wednesday of January. Regular stated meetings shall be held on 
the fourth Wednesday of February, March, April, May, October, 
November, and December. 

Special meetings may be called by order of the Board of Trus- 
tees. The Clerk shall notify each member by a written or printed 
notice sent through the mail postpaid at least three days before 
the time of meeting, or by publishing such notice in one or more 
newspapers published in Brookline. 

At all meetings of the Society ten (lo) members shall constitute 
a quorum for the transaction of business. 

The meetings of the Board of Trustees shall be called by the 
Clerk at the request of the President, by giving each member 
personal or written notice, or by sending such notice by mail, post- 
paid, at least twenty-four hours before the time of such meeting; 
but meetings where all the Trustees are present may be held with- 
out such notice. The President shall call meetings of the Board 
of Trustees at the request of any three members thereof. A 
majority of its members shall constitute a quorum for the transac- 
tion of business. 

ARTICLE VII. 

VACANCIES. 

Vacancies in the offices of Trustees, Clerk, or Treasurer maybe 
filled for the remainder of the term at any regular meeting of the 
Society by the vote of two-thirds of the members present and 
voting. In the absence of the Clerk at a meeting of the Society, a 
Clerk pro tempore shall be chosen. 



Ill 
ARTICLE VIII. 

NOMINATING COMMITTEE. 

At the monthly meeting in December, a Nominating Committee 
of three members shall be appointed by the presiding officer, who 
shall report at the annual meeting a list of candidates for the 
places to be filled. 

ARTICLE IX. 

PRESIDING OFFICER. 

The President, or in his absence the Vice-President, shall pre- 
side at all meetings of the Society. In the absence of those 
officers a President /r^ tempore shall be chosen. 

ARTICLE X. 

DUTIES OF THE CLERK. 

The Clerk shall be sworn to the faithful discharge of his duties. 
He shall notify members of all meetings of the Society, and shall 
keep an exact record of all the proceedings of the Society at its 
meetings. 

He shall conduct the general correspondence of the Society and 
place on file all letters received. 

He shall enter the names of members in order in books or cards 
kept for that purpose, and issue certificates to Life members and to 
Benefactors. 

He shall have charge of such property in possession of the 
Society as may from time to time be delegated to him by the Board 
of Trustees. 

He shall acknowledge all loans or gifts made to the Society. 

ARTICLE XI. 

DUTIES OF THE TREASURER. 

The Treasurer shall collect all moneys due the Society, and pay 
all bills against the Society when approved by the Board of 
Trustees. He shall keep a full account of receipts and expendi- 
tures in a book belonging to the Society, which shall always be 
open to the inspection of the Trustees ; and at the annual meeting 
in January he shall make a written report of all his doings for the 
year preceding. The Treasurer shall give bonds in such sum, with 
surety, as the Trustees may fix, for the faithful discharge of his 
duties. 

ARTICLE XII. 

DUTIES AND POWERS OF TRUSTEES. 

The Board of Trustees shall superintend the prudential and 
executive business of the Society, authorize all expenditures of 



IV 

money, fix all salaries, provide a common seal, receive and act 
upon all resignations and forfeitures of membership, and see that 
the by-laws are duly complied with. The Board of Trustees shall 
have full powers to hire, lease, or arrange for a suitable home for 
the Society, and to make all necessary rules and regulations 
required in the premises. 

They shall make a report of their doings at the annual meeting 
of the Society. 

They may from time to time appoint such sub-committees from 
their own number as they deem expedient. 

In case of a vacancy in the office of Clerk or Treasurer they 
shall have power to choose the same pro tempore till the next 
meeting of the Society. 

ARTICLE XIII. 

STANDING COMMITTEES. 

The President shall annually, in the month of January, appoint 
four standing committees, as follows : — 

Cofnmiitee on Rooms. 
A committee of three members, to be styled the " Committee on 
Rooms," to which shall be added the President and Clerk of the 
Society ex-officio, who shall have charge of all arrangements of 
the rooms (except books, manuscripts, and other objects appro- 
priate to the library offered as gifts or loans), the hanging of 
pictures, and the general arrangements of the Society's collection 
in their department. 

Committee on Papers. 
A committee of three members, to be styled the " Committee on 
Papers," who shall have charge of the subjects of papers to be 
read, or other exercises of a profitable nature, at the monthly 
meetings of the Society. 

Committee on Membership. 

A committee of three or more members, to be styled the " Com- 
mittee on Membership," whose duty it shall be to give information 
in regard to the purposes of the Society, and increase its mem- 
bership. 

Committee on Library. 

A committee of three or more members, to be styled the " Com- 
mittee on Library," who shall have charge of the arrangements of 
the library, including acceptance and rejection of books, manu- 
scripts, and other objects tendered to the library, and the general 
arrangement of the Society's collections in that department. 



These four committees shall perform their duties as above set 
forth under the general direction and supervision of the Board of 
Trustees. 

Vacancies that occur in any of these committees during their 
term of service shall be filled by the President. 

ARTICLE XIV. 

FINANCE COMMITTEE. 

The President shall annually, in the month of January, appoint 
two members, who, with the President, shall constitute the Com- 
mittee on Finance, to examine from time to time the books and 
accounts of the Treasurer, to audit his accounts at the close of the 
year, and to report upon the expediency of proposed expenditures 
of money. 

ARTICLE XV. 

AMENDMENTS. 

These by-laws may be altered or amended at any regular meeting 
by a two-thirds vote of the members present, notice of the subject- 
matter of the proposed alterations or amendments having been 
given at a previous meeting. 




PROCEEDINGS 



OF THE 



Brookline Historical Society 



ANNUAL MEETING. JANUARY 26, 1909 



PROCEEDINGS 



OF THE 



Brookline Historical Society 



ANNUAL MEETING, JANUARY 26, 1909 




BROOKLINE, MASS.: 

PUBLISHED BY THE SOCIETY 

M CM IX 



\ \ 



.'B^'B'S3 




Gift 

The Society 
^«^C !! 1909 



CONTENTS. 



I. President's Address .... 5 
Rufus G. F. Candage. 

II, Report of the Treasurer ... 17 

III. Report of the Nominating Committee . 19 

IV. Milestones In and Near Boston . . 21 

Charles F. Read. 

V. Amanda Maria Edmond, A Brookline 

Poetess ...... 39 

Rufus G. F. Candage. 

VI. Charter of Corporation ... 63 

VII. Officers and Committees for 1909 . . 65 

VIII. Roll of Members ..... 67 

IX. By-Laws . . . . . . i 




RUFUS G. F. CANDAGE 
President of the Brookline Historical Society, 1901-1909 



BROOKLINE HISTORICAL SOCIETY. 



EIGHTH ANNUAL MEETING. 



The eighth annual meeting of the BrookHne His- 
torical Society was held in the G. A. R. Room, Town 
Hall, Brookline, Mass., on Tuesday, January 26, 
1909, at 8 p. m., in accordance with a notice mailed 
to every member. President Rufus G. F. Candage 
was in the chair. 

The records of the last annual and monthly meet- 
ings were read by Charles F. Read, who was elected 
Clerk, pro tern, in the absence of Edward W. Baker, 
Clerk of the Society. 

The President then read his annual address. 

PRESIDENT'S ANNUAL ADDRESS. 

Members of the Brookline Historical Society: — 

Ladies and Gentlemen, — We have met at this eighth annual 
meeting of our Society to hear reports of officers and com- 
mittees of the year passed, elect officers for the current year, 
and to confer and consider plans for the future. In the year 
just closed the Society has carried forward its work, and has 
held regular meetings at which the following papers have been 
read : — 

January 22, The President's Annual Address. 

February 26, "The Edward Devotion Fund," by Edward W. Baker. 

April 1, "Some Interesting Events Preceding the Battles of Lexing- 
ton and Concord," by Alexander Starbuck of Waltham. Mass. 

May 27, "Milestones In and Near Boston," by Charles F. Read. 

October 28, "Mrs. Amanda Maria Edmond, a Brookline Poetess," 
by Rufus G. F. Candage. 

November 25, "Gouvemeur Morris," by George S. Mann. 

December 23, "Old Harvard Street, The Road from Boston to the 
Colleges," by Edward W. Baker. 



The Society entertained the Bay State Historical League 
on April 18, 1908. The meeting was largely attended and 
the courtesy of our Society was appreciated. 

THE SOCIETY'S MEMBERSHIP 

There are at present one hundred and seventy-five mem- 
bers in the Society. We have lost by death two members, 
Caleb Chase and McPherson LeMoyne, who died at their 
homes in Brookline near the close of the year. 

DEATHS IN BROOKLINE IN 1908 

There were 390 deaths in Brookline during the past 
year, ten less than in 1907. Of that number 99 had 
reached and passed the three score and ten limit; 34 were 
between 70 and 75; 28 were between 75 and 80; 17 were 
between 80 and 85; 14 were between 85 and 90; one was 
between 90 and 95, and 4 were between 95 and 100. Of the 
latter, one was 96 yrs. 7 mos. 6 dys. ; one 97 yrs. 9 mos. 4 
dys.; one 98 yrs. 6 mos., and one 98 yrs. 7 mos. 14 dys. 

During the past year many persons of prominence in this 
and other countries have died, and the appalling loss of life 
in Italy and Sicily, December 28, 1908, by the earthquake, 
which called forth the aid and sympathy of the civilized 
world, will take place in history as a shocking calamity. 

SOME HISTORICAL OCCURRENCES OF THE PAST 

This is probably the last annual address I shall write for 
this Society, and I wish to thank the members for their 
uniform courtesy, friendship and forbearance to me in the 
eight years of my incumbency as president. I have in the 
past been deeply interested in the Society's welfare and 
shall continue my interest in it, but am warned by advancing 
years that the direction of its affairs should rest upon younger 
shoulders, with more active bodies and minds to carry forward 
the work so happily begun and maintained to the present 
time. 

I shall now call your attention to some historical occur- 
rences of the past, which have transpired since my life began, 
in the year 1826. John Quincy Adams, the sixth President, 
then sat in the Presidential chair of a nation of twenty-nine 
states and 11,500,000 people. Since then twenty others have 
filled that high office, and on March fourth President-elect 
Taft will be inaugurated the twenty-seventh President from 



Washington, the Executive of forty-six states and a popu- 
lation bordering upon 90,000,000 ! 

Massachusetts had in 1826 a population of 575,000; 
it now has over 3,000,000; Boston then had a population 
of 58,000, it has now 600,000; Brookline then had a little 
over 900 population, while today it has 25,000 or 
more. Chicago, now the second city in our country in popu- 
lation and the fourth upon the globe, with its present 2,050,000 
inhabitants, had no existence even as a town until 1833. 
London, New York and Paris, in the order here named, only 
exceed it, and the latter by less than half a million. To 
have reached its site from Boston would have been a long 
journey by stagecoach, canal and lake conveyance, and would 
have taken as many or more days than it now takes 
hours by modern railway transportation. 

In 1826, at the date of my birth, there was not a foot of 
steam railroad in our country, and scarcely any on the globe. 
Now, in this country alone there are 250,000 miles, equal to a 
belt wound round the globe at the equator more 
than ten times, and representing an invested capital of 
$13,000,000,000. This vast achievement, all accomplished 
within the lifetime of many persons now living, with its 
graded roadbeds, its cuttings, fillings, tunnelings and bridges, 
with the iron required for them, for the rails, rolling, etc., 
then ore in the bowels of the earth, has been brought out 
and wrought into use for this stupendous work within the 
period mentioned. 

Were this the only great achievement, it would be mar- 
velous to contemplate; but there have been many, and our 
minds have become accustomed to think of things which 
to a past generation would have exceeded imagination. 

The steam railroad displaced the stagecoach and revo- 
lutionized travel on long distances, then came the horse rail- 
road on short routes, abolishing the omnibus, and this in turn 
has been superseded by the electrical trolley car. This does 
an amount of work which would seem incredible were it not 
sustained by figures and reports. A vast amount of capital 
is invested in this enterprise, and every city and large town 
in the country is webbed with radiating and cross lines of 
rails and wires. What they are doing in the way of trans- 



8 

porting passengers may well be illustrated by a glance at 
what is being done in Brookline. 

Previous to 1848, when the Brookline branch of the Boston 
& Worcester Railroad went into operation, an hourly omni- 
bus accommodated public travel between here and Boston. 
As travel increased, the omnibus was displaced by a 
single line of horse-cars via Tremont street, and later that 
was superseded by the trolley cars, and instead of one line 
there are now entering and crossing the town nine or ten 
lines of cars, making more than 500 daily trips, and all are 
well patronized. Even now, at certain hours of the day, the 
cars are too crowded to obtain seats or even standing room. 
And all this notwithstanding the number of automobiles seen 
passing and repassing ! It is a convincing proof of the fact 
that "facilities invite travel." 

In 1840 the Cunard steamship line was estabHshed, pre- 
vious to which, mails and passengers were carried across the 
Atlantic in sailing ships, with average passages of 30 to 40 
days. It then took a year for a merchant in this country 
to receive answers from letters sent to China and India, and it 
was not an unusual occurrence for his ship to make a voyage 
out and home without reporting her arrival outward. The 
first Cunard steamship made passages of 18 to 20 days, a gain 
of nearly one half the time taken by the sailing ship. Now 
the Cunarders make the passage in a week or less, and other 
steamship lines in a Httle longer time. The sailing ship has 
been abandoned for Atlantic mail and passenger service, 
and in fact for most other service, the steamship having taken 
her place. 

In 1844 the electric telegraph was patented and put into 
operation, and spread over the world, across deserts, ravines, 
rivers, over mountains, under the sea, its tiny wires stretch- 
ing from city to city, from state to state, from nation to 
nation, in the iron grasp of friendliness. It is a vehicle of 
human speech outdistancing the wind, competing with the 
lightning's flash, swift as thought, — the wonder of the past 
and of the present. Along its wires with lightning speed 
human speech flies to the uttermost parts of the globe, in 
all languages, gathering intelligence for the merchant, 
scientist, statesman and all conditions of men, to be pub- 
lished in the daily morning paper, so that he may read at 



9 

home, upon the train, or elsewhere. It has put an 
end to time and distance in the matter of disseminat- 
ing human intelhgence, and with the steam engine has done 
more than any other agency to unify the nations of the 
earth. Through its wires the merchant sends his message 
to China and India, and instead of waiting nine months or a 
year for a reply, as was once the case, the reply comes in a 
few hours, or a few days at most. 

The accession of Texas to the Union, the Mexican War 
and the acquisition of territory, including California, with 
the discovery of gold there in 1848, set many new enter- 
prises in motion, of which I shall mention one, — our mer- 
chant marine. 

The ships under the American flag in the Atlantic packet 
service, in the China and other trades, held a prominent 
positionontheocean, and culminated in the clipper ship called 
into being by the demand for shorter passages round Cape 
Horn to California. She was the pride of her owner and 
master, the pet of her crew, and her fine lines, graceful model 
and tapering spars were the admiration of landsmen. She 
was the leader of the world's fleets in sailing and in freights; 
her flag was seen and honored on every sea. Other nations 
recognized her superiority, bought her, built after her model 
and lines, and the day of her supremacy was a glorious one 
for the flag and country. Then came the Civil War. Ala- 
bamas and Floridas, with aid and sympathy of those who 
by ties of blood, religion and humanity, should have been 
our friends, destroyed many and drove others to shelter 
under foreign flags. Steamships got the ascendancy during 
the national struggle ; the war ceased, after lasting four years ; and 
the sailing ship in the struggle against steam was driven from 
the ocean; Congress looked on and did nothing; and the 
consequence now is that steamships flying alien flags do our for- 
eign carrying trade, and the flag of an American ship, which 
once flew so gracefully on every sea, is now seldom seen 
many leagues from our coast on a merchant ship. 

The voyage around Cape Horn to California in the old days 
averaged 150 days, and round the world from one to two 
years. Now one may go from Boston across the continent, 
in a luxurious Pullman car, inside of five days, and may keep 
on round the globe and reach home in less than sixty days. 



10 

In my early schooldays I studied Olney's Geography, 
which described that part of our country beyond the Missis- 
sippi and Missouri as the "Great American Desert," — they 
are now fertile states of the Middle West, which railroads 
and modern appliances have been the means of settling 
and making prosperous. 

Agriciilture in the West since that day has made rapid prog- 
ress, and in some states corn and wheat fields larger than 
many a New England township are plowed and planted, 
and their harvests are threshed, bagged, loaded upon cars 
and sent to market by machinery unknown to the farmer of 
sixty years ago, and without being put under cover of a roof. 

In my early boyhood there were no friction matches, the 
flint, steel and tinder box being the dependence in lighting 
a fire, aided by a homemade brimstone match. There were 
no furnaces nor stoves in country houses, and I fancy much 
the same conditions obtained in the cities. The fuel was wood, 
and it was burned in large fireplaces which heated the house, 
and over the fire was the iron crane, with hooks and trammels 
upon which pots and kettles hung for cooking purposes; 
to the right of the fireplace was the brick oven for baking, 
with a place beneath for the preservation of wood ashes to be 
used in making soap for the family. In front of the fire the rye 
and corn cakes were baked, and in a tin kitchen in front the 
meats were roasted. The house was lighted by tallow candles, 
fish or whale oil lamps ; and other household comforts were 
equally crude. Care was taken to keep the ashes over the 
burning backlog at night so that there might be coals to 
start the morning fire, for should there not be and the tinder 
become damp, fire had to be obtained from a neighboring 
house. 

It was as important to keep the tinder dry and ready for 
use as for the soldier and hunter to keep his powder dry. 
This was all changed by the discovery and invention of the 
friction match, which is easily ignited when fire and light are 
needed, and is kept in the home, shop and pocket, always 
ready for use ; it is said to be the most useful of all discoveries 
and inventions the world has known. 

Coming down to later time, the telephone, patented in 
1876 and soon after put to use, was a wonderful discovery, — 
more wonderful than the telegraph in the fact that it is not 



11 

only a chariot of speech, but a transmitter of the sound 
and tones of the human voice, a hundred or a thousand miles. 
It is more direct than the telegraph, being installed in 
home, office, shop or elsewhere, and is more serviceable for dis- 
tances within its radius, although probably it will not supplant 
the telegraph on long distances. Many millions of dollars 
have been invested in it in this and other countries, and it is 
entitled to rank as a great discovery and convenience of 
modern times. 

Still later, Marconi brings to our attention his discovery 
of wireless telegraphy, by which messages are sent over land 
and sea, the atmosphere being the conductor. It is an 
established fact that messages have been and are being sent 
through his device, but how far it will afifect the electric 
telegraph is not yet apparent. The public mind has become 
so accustomed to modern discoveries and inventions for the 
speedy transmission of news and wants in the world's activity 
that this wonderful discovery causes little astonishment or 
comment. 

Since the foregoing sentence was first penned a wireless mes- 
sage has been received reporting a collision on the twenty-third 
instant in a dense fog, twenty-six miles south of Nantucket, 
between the steamships Republic and Florida; in one 
hour four steamships at sea received the message and hurried 
to the scene of the disaster, and four others from ports between 
Boston and New York. There were 1650 persons on the two 
colliding vessels, all of whom, except four, who lost their lives, 
were three days later landed at New York. The Florida arrived 
at that port with her bows stove in and forward compart- 
ments full of water, but the Republic, which was struck near 
abreast of the engine room, into which water entered, flooding 
and extinguishing her boiler fires, sank off No Man's Land 
while in tow for New York. 

This disaster proves beyond doubt the utility of wireless 
telegraphy upon the ocean, and indicates its adoption by all 
seagoing steamships and a wide field of usefulness in the 
future. 

"Following close on the heels of the marine disaster which 
sent the Republic to the bottom of the sea, comes the intro- 
duction of a bill into Congress requiring ocean passenger 
steamers, which ply between American ports and distant 



12 

foreign ports, to be equipped with wireless telegraph instru- 
ments. 

"Wireless telegraphy has ceased to be a plaything or a 
scientific experiment. Through the air over New Eng- 
land at all hours of the day and night fly messages 
from ships, and from naval and commercial stations on 
land. Even ingenious boys, who have fashioned their own 
apparatus, are talking from house to house." 

The modern development and use of electricity only needs 
to be mentioned to bring to mind what we see daily in the 
lighting of buildings and streets, in the moving trolley car 
seen on every hand, and in hundreds of other ways which 
make the present a wonderful age of discovery and inven- 
tion unknown and unanticipated a few decades ago. 

We see countless horseless carriages propelled by electricity, 
steam and other power, a means of conveyance unknown 
a few years since, and they are now so common as to cause 
us no thought, except to keep out of their way. 

In 1856 the ship Victor Emmanuel of Liverpool was rigged 
with wire standing rigging, and was the first to be thus rigged. 
She made her first voyage to Bombay, where in that year 
she was visited by hundreds (I being one) to see, examine 
and comment upon the strange device, little anticipating 
that the time was near at hand when all vessels would be 
thus rigged, and hemp superseded. But such was the case, 
and in modern eyes hemp would seem as strange as wire did 
to men at that time. 

Then ships were built of wood and propelled by sail. Now 
nearly all long- voyage ships are built of steel and are propelled 
by steam. Then the American flag was in the ascendency 
among the merchant fleets of the world. Now it has van- 
ished from the ocean and the great marts of oversea trade. 

The naval fleets of the world were encased in wooden 
hulls; now they are of steel, with armament that would have 
astonished the mind of mankind in its calibre, carrying power 
and effect, managed and used by machinery of modern inven- 
tion and construction. 

In the period under review, that of a human life, the mines 
of California, Australia, New Zealand, South Africa, our 
Rocky Mountain region, Alaska and elsewhere have been 
opened and developed, bringing from the bowels of the earth 



13 

their long hidden treasures of gold, silver, copper, tin, zinc and 
other metals to enrich the people not only of our country 
but of the entire world. The use of natural gas for domestic 
and manufacturing purposes, the refining of crude petroleum, 
and its discovery in various parts of our land have been an 
agency in the march of progress. The mining and use of 
coal and iron have gone on, hand in hand, to bless the world 
and its people, in the household, upon the farm, in the whirr 
of machinery of every name and nature, in all the great 
enterprises we have been considering, and in thousands of 
other ways, being of greater importance to the human 
race than all other products of mines the world over, and 
perhaps of all other products of the earth, that of agriculture 
alone excepted. 

In schools, public, private and technical, in colleges and 
universities, education has made great advancement. Through 
museums, public hbraries, general literature and the public 
press, general knowledge has been disseminated in the past 
half century and has exerted a greater influence than ever 
in the world's history. Old theories have been set aside, new 
ones have been adopted, and the wheels of progress have 
been started. I say started advisedly, for what may seem 
progress today may be as far behind the attainments of fifty 
years hence as those of fifty years ago are now behind the 
present. 

The world's activities have been revolutionized by the 
discoveries and inventions which have taken place in a lifetime. 
Manufactures and mechanical works of almost every kind have 
multiplied, industries which did not exist fifty years ago 
have come into being and are now indispensable to our needs. 
Wealth has accumulated as never before, and its lavish dis- 
play is seen on every hand. It endows schools, colleges and 
universities, founds museums and libraries, establishes asy- 
lums, hospitals, homes, institutions and retreats for all classes, 
aids in moral, intellectual, philanthropic and religious ob- 
jects, and every enterprise, public or private, for the better- 
ment, comfort and well-being of mankind as never before. The 
things we have enumerated are some of those, and their results, 
which have aided in the progressive march of a lifetime. 

And yet, notwithstanding it all, the pessimist claims to see 
in it a wider cleavage between rich and poor. To admit 



14 



that would be to admit that modern civiHzation and all 
Christian effort is but a backward step, in "peace on earth 
and good will to man." 

When changes in social conditions, advocated by im- 
patient agitators, are not immediately put into operation, 
it is customary to assail the wealthy and educated classes of 
society for the delay. Such malcontents do not take into 
consideration that time as we measure it counts but little 
in the economy of the ages, and that He who rules the universe 
rules in accordance with His plan to bring about the millennium. 
Wholesale denunciation of what is called the upper classes is 
unmanly, and a poor apology for a ladder upon which 
to climb to a higher plane. 

How little the busy man, of this busy age, realizes the 
changes which have taken place, except those which are near 
and affect him directly, until his attention is called to the 
subject. The human mind and memory are so constituted 
that they grasp and hold but a slight portion of things, and 
occurrences near at hand soon make us forget the distant 
ones, and leave us without power to penetrate into the future. 

In my boyhood I heard a gentleman say that he had lived 
in the most progressive age of the world's history, and that 
it did not seem possible to him that there could be so much 
advancement and progress in the next fifty or sixty years as 
had taken place in a past period of that length of time. He 
was born in 1781, died in 1852, and has been in another 
sphere of existence fifty-six years. If he from that 
other sphere has been permitted to pass in review the 
great changes and wonderful progress of the past fifty or 
sixty which we have been considering, how astonished he 
must be at his former shortsightedness ! And yet we know 
of no safer guide for future occurrences than the history of 
the past. 

It is the self-appointed province of an historical society 
to delve into the past, bring to light, record and preserve the 
things reposing in the gulf of forgetfulness, that in reviving 
their memories the present may be enriched by the lessons 
they teach. In that line of work the Brookline Historical 
Society in the eight years of its life and activity has accom- 
plished much; there remains much for it yet to accomplish, 
and it is desired and hoped that in the years to come it shall 



15 

prove to act vigorously, be more useful to the town and 
community, and produce greater satisfaction than in the past. 
There are hundreds of subjects relating to the town, thous- 
ands relating to the vicinity and the commonwealth and 
New England, and an unlimited number relating to the 
country, which can be written up, read before the Society 
for the benefit of its members, and preserved in its archives 
to form a rich collection for future generations. Every 
member is capable of doing something to aid in that work, 
and where "there is a long pull, a strong pull, and a pull 
all together" the accomplishment is easy and the result sur- 
prisingly satisfactory. 



17 



The following annual report of the Treasurer, duly- 
audited, was read and approved : — 

REPORT OF THE TREASURER. 



Edward W. Baker, Treasurer, 

In account with Brookline Historical Society. 
Balance on hand January 1, 1908; — 

Permanent fund $872 93 

Current fund 64 84 

$937 77 
Receipts to December 31, 1908: — 

Permanent fund $52 70 

Current fund 238 00 

290 70 



Total balances and receipts $1,228 47 

Expenditures Jan. 1, 1908, to Dec. 31, 1908:— 

From Current Fund. 

Printing Annual Report $90 00 

Printing Notices, etc 23 25 

Postage and Addressing Notices, etc. 19 50 

Lunch, Bay State Historical League. 5 50 

Framing Pictures 5 30 

Envelopes 3 50 

Edward Devotion House Association . 75 00 

Incidentals 80 

Total expenditures 222 85 

Balance January 1, 1909: — 

Permanent fund $925 63 

Current fund 79 99 



Total balances $1,005 62 

Edward W. Baker, Treasurer. 



19 



REPORT OF THE NOMINATING COMMITTEE. 



Your committee appointed to nominate officers of the 
Brookline Historical Society for the coming year begs leave 
to report that it has attended to its duty and proposes the 
following candidates: — 

For Clerk. 
Charles F. White. 

For Treasurer. 
Edward W. Baker. 

For Trustees. 
Charles H. Stearns, 
Charles F. White, 
Edward W. Baker, 
William O. Comstock, 
Joseph McKey, 
Miss Julia Goddard, 
Mrs. Martha C. Kittredge. 

All of which is respectfully submitted. 

Charles F. Read, 
George S. Mann, 
Miss Augusta T. Lamb. 

Brookhne, Mass., December 29, 1908. 

The report was accepted and it was voted to proceed to 
ballot. The ballot was taken and the candidates nominated 
were unanimously elected. 

Voted, That the next meeting of the Society be held on 
February 12, 1909, and that it be commemorative of Abraham 
Lincoln, the date named being the one-hundredth anniversary 
of his birth. 

Voted, That a committee of three be appointed by the 
chair to make arrangements for the meeting and that the 
C. L. Chandler Post, G. A.R., The Women's Relief Corps, the 



20 

Joanna Aspinwall and Hannah Goddard Chapters, D. A. R., 
the Isaac Gardner Chapter, D. R., and The Thursday Club, 
all of Brookline, be invited to attend the meeting as guests 
of the Society. 

The chainnan appointed as the committee Messrs. White, 
Comstock and Read. 

Notice was given of an intention to change the By-Laws 
of the Society in the following manner at the March meet- 
ing of the Society : — 

To add to Article V the following paragraph : — 

"The Officers of the Society shall also include a President 
Emeritus when the Society shall so vote." 

To substitute for the first paragraph of Article VI the fol- 
lowing paragraph : — 

"The annual meeting of this Society shall be on the third 
Wednesday of January. Regular stated meetings shall be 
held on the third Wednesdays of February, March, April, 
May, October, November and December." 

Voted, To print the president's annual address, treasurer's 
report, by-laws, list of officers and members, and such papers 
as the Committee on Publications may select. 

Voted, To dissolve the meeting. 

Edward W. Baker, Clerk. 



lb. 



Br 






fi^i 



MILESTONES IN AND NEAR BOSTON 



21 



MILESTONES IN AND NEAR BOSTON. 

A Paper Read before the Society by Charles F. Read, May 27, 1908. 



Before the introduction of the steam railroad in the nine- 
teenth century, it was the custom in the new world, as in the 
old, to travel by stagecoach or private carriage on the roads 
which connected the towns and villages which lay scattered 
on the route. At intervals on these roads could be seen stone 
posts suitably inscribed, which were called milestones. They 
were welcome sights to travellers, when beginning in gay mood 
a day's journey; a more welcome sight at nightfall when one 
was found to be near a hospitable tavern where food and 
shelter were ready for tired traveller and more tired beast. 

When Benjamin Franklin was Deputy Postmaster-General 
of the British Colonies in America, he caused many milestones 
to be placed on the post roads between Boston and Phila- 
delphia to enable His Majesty's mail carriers to measure 
distance as they travelled on the king's business on their fleet 
horses. It is related of the many-sided Franklin, whom we de- 
light to honor as a native of Boston, that he constructed a 
mechanical device whereby he could have his milestones placed 
at regular intervals on the road. He travelled in a comfortable 
chaise, to which his contrivance was attached. His chaise 
was followed by workmen travelling in a cart, from which 
they unloaded and set a milestone at each designated place. 
This invention of Franklin may be called a forerunner of 
the modern cyclometer and speedometer which the bicyclist 
and autoist attach to "wheel" or "auto" to record the dis- 
tance travelled. A few of the FrankHn milestones are still 
standing on the former post-roads between Boston and Phila- 
delphia. One in Stratford, Conn., is marked — 

F 

20 

Miles 

TO 

N H 



22 

By the time of the administration of Gov. Hutchinson, 
the Province of Massachusetts Bay had become well supplied 
with milestones, and several are still standing. Two are to 
be seen on the old Boston and Worcester Turnpike. One is 
situated in the town of Framingham at the junction of the 
turnpike and the road to South Framingham. It is in- 
scribed — 

23 

Miles 

from 

BOSTON 

1768 

It is interesting to note that within a quarter of a mile 
of this stone is the old Buckminster Tavern, where the three 
companies of Framingham militia paraded before the Battle 
of Lexington in 1775. The two spies sent through Middlesex 
County in February of the same year by Governor Gage 
stayed at this tavern over night and saw a parade of the 
Framingham men. In their report to the governor they 
said, after describing the parade, that "the militiamen went 
into the tavern and drank liquor until they were full of pot 
valor." The other stone is to be seen in the centre of the 
city of Worcester and bears the inscription — 

42 Miles 
to Boston 

52 Miles 

to Springfield 

1774 

These stones are probably two of many which were set 
in compliance with the following order of the Council of 
Massachusetts Bay issued in 1767, the original record being 
filed in volume xvi, page 239, of the Massachusetts Archives. 
The order reads, "To the Justices of Middlesex, Essex, York, 
Cumberland and Lincoln Counties. To preserve mile marks 
of Captain (Francis) Miller, by fixing stones at said marks. 
Also Suffolk, Norfolk, Hampden and Berkshire Counties." 
I am informed that this is the only reference to milestones 
in the records of the Governor's Council from 1729 to 1767. 

It was customary in tavern days for a landlord to locate 
at a mile post on the highway, and fortunate indeed was he 



23 

whose hostelry was placed at the end of a day's journey, for 
this ensured him a steady and profitable business. We can 
see in imagination the rotund figure of "mine host" as he 
hastens to his front door on the arrival of the evening coach, 
joyfully rubbing his hands together at the prospect of a good 
night's trade. 

Landlords were permitted by authority to place mile- 
stones in front of their taverns at their own expense and 
were even allowed to so place such stones if the house was 
located to one side or the other of the proper marking-places. 
These private stones bore the initials of the landlord in 
addition to the distance inscription, and were formerly many 
in number. Such a stone is to be seen now in Walpole, 
Mass., and is inscribed — 

ER 

20 

MILES 

BOSTON 

1740 

This stone was set in provincial days when our "forbears" lived 
under the King, by Ezekiel Robbins, landlord of the Brass 
Bull Tavern in Walpole, a famous relay house or noon rest, 
half way on the post road from Boston to Providence. Land- 
lord and tavern have long since disappeared from sight, but 
the milestone was made of more enduring material. Ban- 
ished from its former location by the widening of the highway, 
it now occupies a prominent position in front of the town 
hall in Walpole. 

In these opening years of the twentieth century, as we 
travel through some of the highways and byways of Greater 
Boston, mayhap by trolley car, automobile or, best of all, by 
"shank's mare," we see scattered along the roadside many 
milestones which have come down to us from the days of 
which we have been speaking. They are zealously guarded 
today by antiquarians who delight in the study of the past, 
although in a practical way the present also claims their 
activities. 

We should know something of the men to whom the people 
of Boston and its vicinity were indebted for placing so many 
milestones, and of these public-spirited citizens we must 
first consider Samuel Sewall, for he began the good work in 



24 

1707, two centuries ago. It is, however, only necessary to 
give a brief biography of this useful and distinguished man, 
for all students of our local history are familiar with the life 
and activities of Boston's famous diarist. 

Samuel Sewall, eldest son of Henry Sewall, was born in 
Bishops-Stoke, England, March 28, 1652, and died in Boston, 
January 1, 1730. He was graduated at Harvard College in 
1671, and received there three years later the degree of A. M. 
He was an assistant of the Massachusetts Bay Colony from 
1684 to 1686, and was appointed by William and Mary in 
1692 as one of their first council, serving in that capacity 
until 1725, a period of thirty-three years. He was appointed 
a judge in 1692 and Chief Justice of the Province of Massa- 
chusetts Bay in 1718, resigning this last office in 1728 on 
account of the infirmities of age. He was also judge of 
probate of Suffolk County from 1715 to 1728. 

Judge Sewall was married three times. His first wife, 
with whom he lived for forty-three years, was Hannah Hull, 
daughter of John Hull of Boston, the famous mint master. 
He married for his second wife Mrs. Abigail Tilley; his third 
wife was Mrs. Mary Gibbs. 

Judge Sewall made the following entry in his diary on 
July 14, 1707: "Mr. Antram and I, having Benjamin Smith 
and David to wait on us, Measured with his Wheel from the 
Town House Two Miles and drove down Stakes at each Mile 
End in order to placing Stone Posts in convenient time. 
From the Town House to the Oak and Walnut is a Mile want- 
ing 21 y^ Rods. Got home again about Eight o'clock." 

Three weeks later the judge wrote: "Peter Weare set up 
the Stone Post to show a Mile from the Town House ends: 
Silence Allen, Mr. Gibbon's son, Mr. Thrasher, — Salter, Wm. 
Wheelers, — Simpson and a Carter assisted, made a Plumb 
Line of his whip. Being Lecture day, I sent David with Mr. 
Weare to show him where the second should be set; were 
only two little Boys beside." 

These stones were placed on the thoroughfare we now call 
Washington street. One mile from the Town House, then 
standing on the site of the present Old State House, is 
at about the corner of Washington and Lucas streets. 
The one milestone at this location is shown on Bonner's 
map of Boston, which was printed in 1722, fifteen years after 



25 

Judge Sewall had the stone placed in 1707. Two miles from 
the town house, where the second Sewall stone was set, is at 
about the corner of Washington and Camden streets. 
It is to be regretted that these two ancient marking stones 
are not standing today. But in the upbuilding of a city there 
is continued change; by such a process these stones may 
have found useful if not appropriate places in cellar walls. 
Will they ever be brought to light and reset as relics of the 
past ? 

The distinguished Paul Dudley may next claim our atten- 
tion, for he cut the initials of his name deep and strong on 
many of the milestones which we see today. 

Paul Dudley, son of Joseph Dudley, Governor of the Massa- 
chusetts Bay Colony from 1702 to 1715, was born in Rox- 
bury, Mass., September 5, 1675, and died there January 25, 
1752. He was educated for the law at the Temple in London, 
and returned to New England in 1702 with a commission 
from Queen Anne as Attorney-General of the Province of 
Massachusetts Bay. He was appointed a judge in 1718 and 
became Chief Justice of Massachusetts in 1745, holding this 
office until his death. 

Judge Dudley was a naturalist as well as a jurist, was 
honored as such by membership in the Royal Society of 
London, and contributed material for a natural history of 
New England to the transactions of that society. 

He married in 1703 Lucy, daughter of Col. John Went- 
worth of Ipswich, Mass. She died in 1756, surviving her 
husband less than five years. 

It is easy to imagine that in the pursuit of the study of 
natural science Paul Dudley, the learned judge, traversed on 
foot the roads and lanes of Roxbury and its vicinity and then 
conceived the placing of his famous milestones; or he may 
have set them at the request of his friend Judge Sewall, whose 
life was then drawing to a close. 

In connection with this biography of Paul Dudley it is 
interesting to relate what I was told by a grandson of Rev. 
Dr. John Pierce, the beloved pastor of the First Parish of 
Brookline, Mass., from 1797 until his death in 1849, a period 
of fifty-two years. Dr. Pierce was driving one day 
with his grandson, then a boy, and was calHng his 
attention to the Dudley milestones which they passed on 



26 

the way. "Remember," said Dr. Pierce, "that these stones 
were placed by Paul Dudley, and to fix this fact in your 
memory I will teach you a couplet of verse which you must 
always remember; 

"His name on every side you see; 
The very stones are marked P. D." 

Many of the Dudley milestones must have been familiar 
to young John Pierce when as a student in Harvard College 
it was his custom to walk from his home in Dorchester to 
Cambridge at the beginning of the week and at the week's 
close to return in like manner. 

Let us now speak of another native of Massachusetts who 
rose to distinction. Jonathan Belcher, son of Andrew Bel- 
cher, a councillor of Massachusetts Bay, was born in Cam- 
bridge, Mass., January, 1682, and died in Elizabeth, N. J., 
August 31, 1757. He was graduated at Harvard College in 
1699 and then travelled in Europe for six years. Returning 
to Massachusetts, he became a Boston merchant and was 
later a representative in the General Court, a councillor, and 
agent of the Province of Massachusetts Bay in England. 

He was appointed by the Crown in 1730 Governor of 
Massachusetts and New Hampshire — then under the same 
jurisdiction — and served until 1741, when in response to the 
opposition to his administration he was superseded by Gov. 
William Shirley. He was appointed Governor of New 
Jersey in 1747, and held that office until his death. 

Jonathan Belcher married January 4, 1705, Mary Partridge, 
daughter of William Partridge, Lieutenant-Governor of New 
Hampshire from 1699 to 1702. She died in Boston, October 
6, 1736, and in 1748, when Governor of New Jersey, he mar- 
ried for a second wife Mrs. Teel of London. 

Lastly, let us study briefly the life and activities of John 
McLane, a Boston merchant and benefactor. He was born 
in Milton, Mass., in 1761 and died there October 16, 1823. 

It is interesting to relate of Mr. McLane that, having failed 
in business late in the eighteenth century and at a later 
period having recovered his lost fortune, he invited his 
creditors to a supper at the Exchange Coffee House in Boston. 
At the gathering, which proved to be a joyous one, each 
guest found under his plate a check covering the amount of 
his claim, including interest. 



I 



27 

In his will, John McLane made the Massachusetts General 
Hospital his residuary legatee, and that institution, then 
just beginning its great work, received more than one hun- 
dred thousand dollars from the estate. As a tribute of 
respect for this benefaction, the trustees of the hospital 
named the department for the care of the insane the McLean 
Asylum. The asylum, now great in itself, was located for 
many years on the Barrell estate in Somerville. It is now 
splendidly maintained in Waverley. 

The milestones which were erected at the expense of John 
McLean were placed in position in 1823, the year in which 
he died. In fact, the work was completed after his death 
by his business partner, Isaac Davenport, who caused the 
name of J. McLean to be placed on all the stones. 

The milestones which we are to consider in this paper 
were set on five roads which, then as now, connected Boston 
and some of the neighboring towns, and it is well to remember 
that all five lines of stones supplement the two which Judge 
Sewall had placed in 1707, and of which I have spoken pre- 
viously. The five roads radiate from a southeasterly to a 
northwesterly direction from the portions of Washington 
and Roxbury streets which extend from Eustis street to 
Eliot Square. 

The ancient Lower Road to Dorchester, of which I shall 
speak first, began at the corner of Washington and Eustis 
streets, and, running through Roxbury and Dorchester, ended 
at Dorchester Lower Mills; it followed the present Esutis, 
Dearborn and Dudley streets, Columbia road and Hancock 
and Adams streets. On this road a line of milestones was 
placed in the year 1734 by Gov. Jonathan Belcher "to guide 
the weary traveller on his way." Teel's History of Milton, 
published in 1889, tells us that a platway of these stones 
was at one time in the possession of Edward J. Baker, who 
died in Dorchester in 1891, and who was deeply interested 
in the local history of Milton. 

We should find the three-mile stone in the immediate vicin- 
ity of the Hugh O'Brien School on Dudley street, Roxbury, 
but it has disappeared from sight. 

A distance of one mile carries us to Hancock street, opposite 
Trull street, Dorchester, but the stone which stood there for 
one hundred and seventy-three years was removed in 1907 



28 



for safe keeping to the grounds of the Dorchester Historical 
Society at Edward Everett Square. Placed within a foot of 
the front wall of the ancient Blake house, the appropriate 
home of the society, it has found a permanent resting place. 
It is inscribed — 

4 

Miles from 

Boston 

Town Hous[e] 

1734 

The removal of a milestone from its proper location is always 
to be regretted, but a visit to the locality where it 
formerly stood, convinces us that it was by no means safe 
there, so rapidly is the neighborhood changing from a rural 
to an urban condition. 

The five-mile stone should be near the corner of Adams 
and Park streets, Dorchester, but it cannot be found at the 
present day. 

As we journey on for the next mile on Adams street, we 
see many evidences of the ancient character of this thorough- 
fare. We pass houses some of which were built possibly in 
the seventeenth century, and we see the stately elm trees 
bordering the way, the fast decaying fruit orchards and the 
primitive stonewalls which bounded the once productive farms. 
Before many years, all of these, with the exception possibly 
of the elms, will have disappeared, for there is to be seen on 
every side the three-story wooden apartment house. 

The six-mile stone should be at about the corner of Adams 
street and Oak avenue, midway between Ashmont and 
Neponset, but we found no trace of it. 

It is gratifying to record that the seven-mile stone has been 
cared for by the Boston authorities. It has been built into 
the Adams street wall of Dorchester Park and will thereby 
be preserved for generations to come. It is marked — 

7 

Miles to Boston 

Town Houfe 

1734 

Descending the slope to the Neponset River, the picture 
of the valley and the hills beyond gladdening our eyes, we 



29 



cross the river at Dorchester Lower Mills, and find ourselves 
in Milton, one of the fairest towns in the Commonwealth. 
Continuing on Adams street in that town, we find the last 
of the Belcher stones set in the front wall of Hutchinson 
Field, a metropolitan reservation. It is inscribed — 

8 

Miles to B Townhoufe 
The Lower Way 1734 

As we stand in front of this stone on the summit of Milton 
Hill and look on the beautiful picture embracing the Blue 
Hills and the wide expanse of Boston Harbor, we recall the 
three royal governors who travelled by coach and four the 
lower road to Dorchester in the eighteenth century. Time 
and again have Governor Belcher and Governor Hutchinson 
counted the milestones on this road as they journeyed to and 
fro between the Boston town house and their estates in 
Milton. The third chief magistrate was William Shirley, 
Governor of Massachusetts Bay from 1741 to 1756, succeed- 
ing Jonathan Belcher. Governor Shirley travelled continu- 
ally a portion of the lower road, for his home was very near 
where we hoped to find the three-mile stone on Dudley 
street, Roxbury. 

The line of milestones which were placed on the Upper 
Road to Dorchester, and which extend through Milton to 
Quincy, should be considered next. These stones are shown 
on an original plan which is preserved in the Massachusetts 
Archives. It is entitled, "Boston Town House to the ten- 
mile stones in Quincy measures 10|4^ miles plus 1 rod. The 
Upper Road as travelled," and was drawn in 1802 by William 
Taylor of Boston, Surveyor. 

The total distance, 10^ miles plus 1 rod, indicates that the 
stones were not placed in their proper locations, and further- 
more the distances between them vary from 78 to 120 chains. 
But probably the traveller of the eighteenth century replied, 
if the locations of his milestones were questioned, "Never 
mind, they serve their purpose." 

The third milestone was in place on Warren street, near 
Rockland street, Roxbury, until about the year 1871, when 
it disappeared during the erection of a block of dwelling 
houses there. This information was given me by the late 



30 



L. Foster Morse, who is remembered for his interest in the 
local history of Boston, and especially that of Roxbury, where 
he resided. 

One mile further on, we find at 473 Warren street, Grove 
Hall, the four-mile stone, which is the first Paul Dudley stone 
that we have considered. It is marked — 

B 4 
1735 
PD 

and it is interesting to say in addition that at the beginning 
of the nineteenth century one Bugbee had a tavern here, 
which was the first resting place on the road. 

The next stone should be near the corner of Washington 
and School streets, Dorchester, but it has disappeared. 

The six-mile stone, which stands at the corner of Washing- 
ton and Mora streets, Dorchester, is a peculiar one, and it 
would be interesting to learn the meaning of a portion of the 
following inscription — 

HEMMS 6 

w c M to B 
TI 



On Adams street, Milton, which was laid out as early as 
1654, we see near the railroad station the next stone, which 
is inscribed — 

B 

7 

1722 

A walk of one mile on this ancient road to Quincy carries 

us to the location of the next stone, near the corner of Adams 

and Babcock streets. East Milton. The stone is inscribed — 

B 

8 

1723 

We find one mile further, on Adams street, Quincy, just 

beyond the Furnace Brook metropolitan reservation, the 

next stone, on which we read — 

B 

9 

1730 

J N 



31 

I am informed by William G. Spear, who is an authority 
on the antiquities of Quincy, that the initials on this stone, 
J. N., are, to quote his exact words, "most likely meant for 
Joseph Neal." 

One more mile carries us to Hancock street, Quincy, and 
on that thoroughfare, within sight of the church under which 
lie buried the second and sixth Presidents of the United 
States, we see what remains of the next one of this line of mile- 
stones. It is built into the stonewall in front of the Brackett 
house and we read on it only — 

B 
10 

The eleven-mile stone formerly stood near the Adams 
house, at the base of Penn's Hill, Quincy, but it disappeared 
many years ago. 

The twelve-mile stone is still to be seen on Franklin Street 
in Braintree as one enters the limits of that town. It is 
inscribed — 

B 

12 

IM 1727 IH 

On the broad boulevard which we now call Blue Hill avenue, 
and which was called Brush Hill Turnpike from 1805 to 1870, 
we find the McLean milestones, which were placed in 1823. 
They are six in number, are constructed of hammered granite 
of uniform size, and the inscriptions on them are similar, with 
the exception of the numeral indicating the distance from 
Boston. 

The five-mile stone is at Harvard street, Dorchester, one 
mile from the Dudley stone at Grove Hall. It is inscribed — 

Boston 

5 Miles 

J McLean 

1823 

The six-mile stone is at the corner of Ormond street, Dor- 
chester, and the seven-mile is passed as one enters the town 
of Milton. 

Continuing, we find the three remaining McLean stones in 
Milton. The eight-mile stone is about a quarter of a mile south 
of Robbins street, the nine-mile stone is at Atherton street, 



32 

and the ten-mile stone is safely set in the stone wall of a 
private estate not far from the boundary line between Milton 
and Canton. 

Proceeding on Washington street, Canton, which is the 
continuation of Blue Hill avenue, we find a line of stones 
which practically supplement all three lines which we have 
considered thus far. They differ, however, from one another 
in form and material, and were placed by different persons. 

At the base of Blue Hill we find a stone which was placed 
by Lemuel Davenport of Canton. It is marked — 

12 

Miles 

to Boston 

1774 

L D 

One mile further is a stone set in a wall in front of a resi- 
dence which was formerly the Cherry Tavern. It is in- 
scribed — 

13 

Miles to Boston 

1786 

John Spare 

John Spare, who set this stone, was a son of Samuel Spare, 
an early settler in Canton, and who was the first one of the 
name in New England. Both father and son were promi- 
nent in the Episcopal Church, or, as it was then called, the 
English Church, which was formed in the early days of the 
town. 

Huntoon's History of Canton tells us that the fourteen- 
mile stone is not standing, the author believing, when he 
compiled the history, that the stone lay buried beneath a 
modern wall. 

The fifteen-mile stone stands in front of the Roman Catholic 
Cemetery in Canton and opposite the meeting house of the 
the First Congregational Parish. We cannot learn who 
placed it there, for the inscription merely reads — 

B 
15 
M 



33 



Two miles further on the same road in Canton is a stone 
which bears the inscription — 

B 17 

M 
1736 
N L 

This stone was set by Nathaniel Leonard, and is the first one 
placed in the town. 

At the junction of Roxbury and Centre streets, Eliot Square, 
Roxbury, at which point the two last lines of milestones begin, 
we find the famous Dudley "Parting Stone." It bears on its 
faces the three inscriptions — 

THE 
PARTING STONE Cambridge 

1744 WATERTOWN 

P DUDLEY 



DEDHAM 
RHODE 

ISLAND 



It is a satisfaction for antiquarians to know that this stone 
was saved from threatened destruction a few years ago, and 
that it will now be preserved for many years to come by the 
Boston authorities. 

Centre street, on which we trace the next line of stones, 
runs through Roxbury, Jamaica Plain, Roslindale and West 
Roxbury to Dedham and beyond. The road was laid out as 
early as 1662, and was once called "The Middle Post Road 
from Boston to Hartford." The stones which we find on this 
ancient road were set by Judge Dudley, and four of them are 
in place today. 

The three-mile stone is at the corner of Centre street and 
Highland avenue, just beyond Eliot Square, and is inscribed — 

BOSTON 

3 MILES 

1729 

It is one mile distant from the former location of Judge 
Sewall's two-mile stone on Boston Neck. 

Proceeding on Centre street, we find one mile further, 
opposite Creighton street, the four-mile stone, a small one, 
set in a retaining wall. It is marked — 

B. 4 
1735 



34 

The five-mile stone stands at the corner of Centre and Ehot 
streets, Jamaica Plain, and is the largest and finest of all the 
Dudley stones. It is about four feet high, almost three feet 
wide and quite symmetrical. It is, moreover, the only one 
on which a title is affixed to the name of the man who placed 
it. The inscription reads — 

5 Miles 
Boston 

Townhouse 

P Dudley Esq^ 

1735 

The six-mile stone is opposite AUandale street, Jamaica 
Plain, and, like the five-mile stone, is large and well propor- 
tioned. It is marked — 

6 Miles 
Boston 

1735 P D 

This is the last stone standing on this route, with one excep- 
tion; fourteen miles further on, we find in Walpole the Ezekiel 
Robbins stone, of which mention has been already made in 
this paper. 

Starting again at the Parting Stone in Eliot Square, Rox- 
bury, we find the fifth and last line of milestones on the 
ancient road to Cambridge and Watertown. We find the road 
today in the following avenues and streets: Roxbury street, 
Columbus avenue, Tremont street and Huntington avenue, 
Boston; Washington and Harvard streets, Brookline; Har- 
vard avenue, Franklin and North Harvard streets, Brighton; 
and, crossing the Charles River, Boylston street, Cambridge, 
to Harvard Square in that city. 

The three-mile stone on this route should be on Roxbury 
street, just beyond Eliot Square, but it has disappeared. 

As we walk the next mile, we see a milestone on Tremont 
street, just beyond Roxbury Crossing, which is one of the 
Worcester Turnpike stones. It is set in the retaining wall in 
front of the Comins School and is inscribed — 

To Boston 

Line 1 M 

1810 

While considering this line of stones, I will speak of 

another one which is to be seen at the corner of Boylston 



35 

and Warren streets, Brookline. It is of similar design and 
size and was placed in the same year. It is inscribed — 

To Boston 

Line 3 M 

1810 

This stone is not in its proper location, it being evidently 
placed in its present position by the authorities of Brookline 
to ensure its preservation. It stands in a triangular plot of 
town land at the intersection of the above named streets. 

Returning to the line of milestones we are considering, 
we find the four-mile stone in front of the grounds of the House 
of the Good Shepherd, on Huntington avenue, Roxbury. 
It is a Dudley stone and is marked — 

[B]OSTO[N] 

4 MILES 
1729 

P D 

The five-mile stone is now permanently placed on the lawn 
of the Harvard Congregational Church of Brookline. It 
bears the inscription — 

BOSTON 

5 MILES 
1729 

P D 

This stone was formerly on the opposite side of the street, 
and it was largely by the efforts of the Brookline Historical 
Society that it was placed in its present appropriate position. 

The six-mile stone should be near the corner of Harvard 
street and Commonwealth avenue, Brighton, but it has 
disappeared from sight. 

The seven-mile stone is in front of the North Harvard Street 
Primary School, Brighton. To preserve it, the Boston 
authorities have had it set in a brick wall, surmounted by 
flagstone. It is marked — 

BOSTON 
7 MILES 

1729 

P D 



36 

A walk of a mile carries us to Harvard square, Cambridge, 
and there in the ancient burying-ground where "the rude 
forefathers of the hamlet sleep," we find a milestone which 
is the last one we shall consider in this paper. It was set up 
in 1734, and supplements the line of stones which Judge 
Dudley placed five years earlier, and which we have just 
studied. It bears two inscriptions, the one on the face front- 
ing on Harvard square reading — 

BOSTON 
8 MILES 

1734 

A I 

When the first West Boston Bridge was built the following 
inscription was cut on the opposite face of the stone — 

CAMBRI[DGE] 

NEW BRIDG[E] 

2'A MILES 

J794 

This stone was placed by Abraham Ireland of Cambridge 
on the east side of the first Middlesex County Court House, 
which stood in the middle of Harvard Square. The stone 
narrowly escaped destruction when removed from this loca- 
tion, and it then stood for some years in front of Dane Hall, 
then occupied by the Harvard Law School. After a second 
rescue from demolition, it was placed in its present location. 

Abraham Ireland died in 1753 and lies buried in the bury- 
ing-ground near where his milestone stands today. His 
gravestone bears the following inscription, which is a fair 
specimen of the mortuary poetry of the eighteenth century: 

"God brought him from a distant land 

And did preserve him by his mighty hand. 

God blessed him with old age and a great posterity. 

Pray God to give them Grace to fly to Christ ! 

To prepare them for great Eternity." 

It is not possible, in a brief paper, to speak of all the mile- 
stones to be seen at the present time in Greater Boston. There 
are scattered stones in Boston, Quincy, Milton and other 
towns which I have not mentioned, and occasionally I am 
told of others in various parts of Eastern Massachusetts. 



37 

You have, however, learned that there are still standing a 
goodly number of these interesting relics of provincial days; 
most of them now receive watchful care and will probably 
be preserved for many years. 

It is appropriate to close with a quotation from Alice Morse 
Earle's delightful book entitled, "Stage Coach and Tavern 
Days." The words of the quotation were often used almost 
two centuries ago to induce travellers to patronize some 
particular stagecoach route; they are, "This Elegant Road is 
fully Set with well cut Mile stones." 



1 




AMANDA MARIA (COREY) EDMOND 



39 



AMANDA MARIA EDMOND, A BROOKLINE 

POETESS. 

A paper read before the Society by Rufus G. F. Candage, October 28, 1908. 



The familar saying that "a poet is born not made" does 
not answer the question of what constitutes a poet. Dry den 
said, "A poet is a maker, as the word impHes." Landor said, 
"A poet represents things impressed on his mind by the 
Creator." Sharp said, "The poet is one whose emotions, 
intenser than others, find vent in some form of harmonious 
words." Said Whittier, "Poetry is the lofty engine of thought 
the fire of poesy." 

These definitions lead to the conclusion that a poet is one 
skilled in the art of metrical composition, has gift of poetic 
imagination, invention and creation, with eloquence of ex- 
pression in prose or verse. A poetess is to be measured by 
like rules. With this introduction I shall now proceed to 
give a sketch of a Brookline poetess. 

Amanda Maria Corey was the daughter of Elijah Corey, 
Jr., and Mary (Richards) Corey, and was born October 28, 
1824, eighty-four years ago today. The place of her birth 
was the old Whyte-Corey-Bartlett house on Washington 
street, Brookline, under the southwestern slope of Corey 
Hill. She was descended from Thomas Corey, who settled 
in Chelmsford in 1662, and from Edward Richards, who 
came to Watertown in 1630 and settled at Dedham in 
1635, and she was therefore of New England Puritan 
ancestry. Her great grandfather, Timothy Corey, for whom 
Corey Hill was named, was a soldier of the Revolution. He 
was a farmer, a man of sturdy character, and the ancestor 
of the Coreys of Brookline. 

To have been born of an honorable line of ancestry, it is 
said, is to be well born, and having been born, to have the 
ability and to use it aright for the improvement of one's 
inheritance is truly commendable. Whether Amanda Maria 
Corey did that or not I shall leave for the determination of 



40 



my auditors after hearing the evidence contained in this 
brief sketch of her and of her writings. 

The Coreys of Brookline were respected, honest and indus- 
trious farmers, who at Amanda's birth, for three generations 
had tilled the soil on the southwesterly slope of Corey Hill. 
In the house upon the farm, she spent her infancy and 
childhood. She attended the town schools, and there re- 
ceived her education. In childhood and girlhood she was 
reticent and thoughtful and she chose to roam alone through 
fields and woodlands, to climb Corey Hill, drink in the beauties 
of the landscape, listen to song birds, admire flowers and 
plants and commune with nature. 

Her school and playmates called her exclusive and strange. 
They did not fathom the depth of her imagination and the 
nature of her poetic mind, which even then, was gathering 
inspiration for the songs soon to burst forth. Nor could 
they, for she lived in a realm apart from theirs. In a 
poem to her mother she explains this. I quote a portion. 

Mother! dear mother! a song for thee; 
Thou shalt the theme of my minstrel be; 
Thou who didst smile on my ruder lays 
I warbled first in my early days. 
'Tis the hand of a daughter sweeps the lyre, 
With a life whose melody shall not tire 
Till the brow is cold and the eye is dim, 
Of her who carrolled my cradle hymn. 

Mother ! dear mother ! when I was a child , 
I loved the hill and the greenwood wild, 
When the silvery song of the soaring bird. 
And the circling insects hum was heard; 
Dearer to me than my childish play 
Were the haunts I sought of a summer day; 
But there was a greater love for thee 
In the heart that clung to flower and tree. 

Mother ! dear mother ! as oft I strayed 
To muse alone in the woodland glade, 
They called me gloomy, they called me strange, 
But little they dreamed of the wondrous change 
Which the spell of poesy, sweet and wild, 
Had wrought in the heart of thy pensive child; 
And little dreamed they of the lyre she swept 
Where the old oak's shade on the green turf slept. 



41 

Her school days were happy ones, and friendships were 
formed severed only by death. Early in life she had clear 
convictions as to her religious duties, which led her to unite, 
at the age of fourteen years, with the Baptist Church, and 
to remain a consistent member until called to the church 
above. Her religious exercises and feelings often found ex- 
pression in her writings, which were marked by piety, 
faith, and trust in the goodness of her Maker; these gave her 
the hope of a better world beyond, where she would meet 
kindred and friends gone before, and be joined in due time 
by those left behind. 

From the beginning her poetic ideals were high and pure, 
as will be seen by the following lines written at the age of 
fifteen upon a flyleaf of her manuscripts : 

The spirit song is on me, and the lyre 

The heart's own music pours, but not to thee 

Oh earthly fame shall the glad offering be, — 

Higher than this my spirit shall aspire, 

For oh, what art thou but a fleeting breath 

Bought by a weary life, or early death. 

Sweeter far to me the thought in after days. 

Cherished in loving hearts my name to live 

Thou blazoned on the rolls a theme of praise, 

'Mong those who, oft but hollow flattery give; 

Therefore these powers of mine thou shalt not claim. 

For I will lay them on a holier shrine. 

Whose sacred fires burn with celestial flame. 

Father in heaven ! on thine, and only thine ! 

Between the age of fourteen and twenty she wrote many 
poems, and a selection of these was published after her death 
for the use of friends. In 1845, when she was twenty-one, 
a volume entitled "The Broken Vow and Other Poems," 
was published and a copy sent to James Montgomery, the 
hymn writer. He wrote in acknowledging its receipt, as fol- 
lows: — "I pretend not to equal you and Mrs. Sigourney with our 
own Felicia Hemans and Joanna Baillie,but in many of your re- 
spective compositions you may without disparagement, grace- 
fully and honorably compete with them; so far be it said, 
to resemble them, as become sisters of one lineage and 
family features."' 

Mrs. Sigourney responded with generous appreciation, to a 
copy sent her that she had "read the poems with pleasure, 



42 

admired their melodious numbers, and always their pure 
spirit. One of them, 'When is the Time to Die,' has long 
been a favorite of mine, without knowing what lyre first 
awoke its sweetly, plaintive music. I am happy to have it 
in my power to thank the true author, and to congratulate 
her on possessing a gift, which has such an afhnity with 
inward joy, and sometimes so strong an influence for the good 
of others." 

In 1843 Miss Corey's father died at the early age of forty- 
three. She was strongly attached to him and his death was 
the first great bereavement over which she and her family 
deeply sorrowed. She wrote tenderly to her mother in a 
poem concerning it, a verse being here quoted: — 

Mother! dear mother! when years had past, 
Sweet years, that fled on their pinions fast. 
The angel of death his shadow flung 
Where our silvery bow of hope was hung; 
And we stood together, side by side. 
When a father sank in his manhood's pride; 
Together we caught the parting sigh. 
As the soul was borne to the world on high. 

On another occasion, we see her, heavy-laden, climb Corey 
Hill to a secluded spot to meditate on her loss and to pour 
out her sorrow within in plaintive melody: — 

A year ago ! a year ago 

Old Hill, I climbed thy brow. 
But bearing not the heart of woe 

That beats within me now ! 

■ The blossoms of my summer bowers 

Lie withered neath my tread; 
I care not for the faded flowers; — 
My heart is with the dead ! 

And this is all — the time has been — 

I am still true to thee; 
But thou. Old Hill, can ne'er again 

Be what thou wert to me ! 

O Time ! The shadow of thy wing 

Is dark that beareth me; 
Alas ! that e'en thy flight should wring 

Such bitter tears from me ! 



43 

The dark shadow, as sunshine follows rain, was turned 
aside. She was won and wed by James Edmond in May, 
1844, and thereafter her poems when printed, bore the initials, 
"A. M. E." Their wedding tour was a voyage across the 
Atlantic, with visits to England Ireland, Scotland and 
France. Even upon the voyage out she burst into song; a 
verse is here quoted: — 

Roll on ! roll on, ye giant waves, 

In grandeur, fierce and wild. 
Old Ocean, though he madly raves. 

Must own me as his child ! 

In London they visited Westminster Abbey, where the 
poet Campbell had recently been laid to rest in "Poet's 
Corner," she then wrote: — 

There came to the Abbey a funeral train. 

The corpse of a minstrel bearing. 
Whom the hand of the spoiler. Death, had slain; 

With the laurel he yet was wearing. 

In Scotland they visited Melrose Abbey, Loch Leven Castle 
where Mary, Queen of Scotts was confined after the defeat 
at Carbury Hill, and she wrote poems on each. On visiting 
Abbotsford she wrote a poem, one verse of which is as fol- 
lows : — 

It dawned on our vision, a beautiful spot. 

The home of a poet, the dwelling of Scott; 

And we thought as we entered its precincts profound, 

We were treading where genius had hallowed the ground, — 

And the tiniest wildflower that sprang at our feet 

Seemed blooming with fragrance, was sacred and sweet ! 

The visit abroad was to her interesting and instructive. 
She wrote many lines of verse concerning it, one being in praise 
of the heroine, Grace Darling, and her efforts to save the 
lives of crew and passengers from the wrecked steamship 
Forfarshire in the North Sea in 1837. 

Notwithstanding her enjoyment of her visit abroad, Mrs. 
Edmond was glad when the time came for her return to her 



44 

loved native land, to which she was ever loyal. She wrote 
of her feelings and longings as follows: — 

I'm pining for the birds and flowers 

Around my native home; 
I'm pining for the wildwood bowers 

Through which I loved to roam, 
And for the gentle summer breeze 

That brought the earnest words 
I fancied in the hum of bees 

And silver song of birds. 

I'm pining for the old green hill 

That rises high and grand, — 
The soil my father used to till 

With rough but honest hand; 
And for a dear, a hallowed spot 

Beyond the rolling wave, 
My spirit never hath forgot, — 

I'm pining for his grave ! 

I'm pining for my mother's smile, 

And for her gentle voice; 
The little ones, whose sportive wile 

Oft made my heart rejoice; 
A sister's welcome, warm and true, 

A brother's greeting hand. 
And all the dear old friends I knew 

When in my native land. 

I've gazed on Scotia's heathered hills. 

In purple bloom arrayed, — 
Her lakes of blue, her silver rills, 

Her bands hath lovelier made; 
I've traversed Erin's emerald isle 

So beautiful, so fair, — 
The contrast of her woe the while 

My spirit ill could bear; 

I've gazed on England's pomp and power 

Her cities, known to fame. 
Where palace proud and lofty tower 

Bear high and royal name; 
And on that land of many lays. 

The sunny land of France, 
Where peasants in the harvest days 

Upon the red grapes dance; — 



45 

But oh, not Scotia, fresh and fair, 

Not Erin, fairer still. 
Nor England, with her riches rare, 

Nor France, with vine-clad hill, 
Have aught so lovely and so grand, 

So beautiful and wild. 
As thou, my own, my native land 

Thou ! nature's fairest child Ut 

Upon their return, Mr. and Mrs. Edmond began house- 
keeping in the old Croft-Atkinson-Salisbury house on the 
corner of Cypress and Washington streets, and they resided 
there for several years. While residing there, Mrs. Edmond's 
mother, to whom she was devotedly attached, died in 1848, 
her elder brother Charles in 1851, and in that house the 
writer made her acquaintance. Children were added to the 
family, and Mrs. Edmond's cares multiplied, but she snatched 
moments from other duties to write poems and stories for the 
young and for the Ladies' Almanac, of which she was editor 
for a series of years, over the signature of "A. M. E." She 
was still a loving child and admirer of nature, with pictures 
from which she often adorned her writings. In front of the 
old house, on the corner of the two streets, as some will 
remember, were large and beautiful elms, which could be 
seen and admired from her door and windows ; she made them 
the subject of a poem of six stanzas, the first two being 
quoted :— 

How beautiful are the ancient elms 

That o'er the wayside bend; 
In graceful drapery green and soft, 

Their clustering leaves they blend; 
And thickly o'er the gray, rough bark 

Creepeth the yellow moss, 
Up and around the branches dark. 

Where the boughs each other cross ! 

When spring returns with her blossoms gay, 

And the earth in green appears. 
The birds come carolling back to build 

Where they have built for long years; 
And children come with hoop and ball. 

And a merry song of glee, 
And loud and clear their joyful call 

From under each ancient tree ! 

Mrs. Edmond's children played with others under the 
"ancient trees," and her family was a cheerful and happy one. 



46 

But shadows were gathering and soon enveloped the home 
in sorrow and gloom. Amy, a bright, lovable daughter of 
four years was taken from the family circle to the home 
above. Two days before her departure she looked up 
into the face of her mother and said: — "When I was up in 
God's house, I said to God, 'May I go down and see mother?' 
And he said yes, and so I came down!" "I did not know," 
said her mother, from whence she derived the idea, but the 
words and the look accompanying them thrilled my soul and 
brought conviction of the return that soon took place." The 
loss of that child filled the heart and soul of Mrs. Edmond 
with anguish and she gave expression to her grief in the fol- 
lowing poem entitled, "Our Amy": — 

Back to His house her spirit flew, 

The bright and blest abode; 
Ah, me! how well the way she knew 

Along the heavenly road. 
What life, what light, what joy was hers! 

The beauty how divine ! 

What wild regret, what bitter tears, 

What agony was mine ! 

I watched her through the weary night, 

And every hour to me 
Gave a sad foretaste, in its flight. 

Of what the last would be. 
And when the cold gray morn had come 

And turned to early day, 
Her angel came, — my lips were dumb 

And dared not answer, nay ! 

For while with grief my spirit shook. 

As by a tempest thrilled. 
Her eyes sought mine with such a look 

The rising storm was stilled. 
I gave her one fond kiss, the last, 

Of my farewell the sign. 
Then from my arms to His she passed. 

Who gave her first to mine. 

Close nestled to my heart, she died, 

Nor did it dying seem; — 
Awake my soul ! awake ! I cried ! 

For thou dost only dream. 
Oh, mocking hope, as fleet as vain! 

Bewildered, bleeding, sore. 
I laid my darling down again, 

For she was there no more ! 



47 

' Of all the prayers that test our faith, 

This is the hardest one; — 
To gaze on a dear face in death, 

And say, 'Thy will be done.' 
In the wild struggle nature fails 

And sinks affrighted, down; 
A mortal grief o'er faith prevails, — 

The cross obscures the crown. 

■ So fast upon her pale, sweet clay 

Came down my blinding tears. 
They veiled awhile, her shining way 

To the celestial spheres. 
Oh Thou! who hast with hand unseen, 

Removed the loved to thee. 
Come now, with helping grace, between 

The little child and me ! 

The cup of her sorrow seemed overflowing, but it was to be 
added to twelve days later by the death of her youngest 
child, a daughter of two years of age, little Jenny. This 
affliction, like the previous one, was hard to bear and 
weighed her spirit down, but again she had recourse to her 
pen and unburdened her soul in the following poem : — 

OUR JENNY. 

At midnight hour, while others slept. 
From troubled dreams we woke and wept, 
For death had o'er our threshold crept 
For little Jenny ! 

The watcher's lamp was burning low, 
We could not see our loved one go; 
There was no sound, no cry, but oh ! 
Our little Jenny ! 

So still she lay, so very still. 
White as the snow-flakes on the hill; 
We touched her cheek, it gave a chill. 
Our darling Jenny ! 

Our hearts with grief were running o'er 
For one we ceased not to deplore, 
Who went a few brief days before 
Our little Jenny ! 

And now another! help us, Lord! 
By the dear promises of thy word. 
To drink this cup which thou hast poured 
Of grief for Jenny ! 



48 



We kissed and laid her from our sight. 
In all her childish beauty bright, 
Down in the grave's cold, quiet night, 
Our precious Jenny ! 

'Twas hard to turn to life again; 
Through everything the ringing pain 
Came back of looking all in vain 
For little Jenny ! 

Then faith with sweet assurance said, 
Behold ! the loved one is not dead; 
Up with the angels overhead 
Sings little Jenny ! 

And not alone her tiny feet 
Went upward in the golden street, — 
An angel child came forth to meet 
Our darling Jenny ! 

Two little sisters, hand in hand. 
In His dear presence joyful stand. 
Who called to His better land. 
Amy and Jenny ! 

Time rolled on and soothed the sorrow for the deaths of 
Amy and Jenny. The family removed to Philadelphia to 
reside for a time, and there they made new acquaintances and 
friends, who were appreciative admirers of Mrs. Edmond and 
her writings. There, amid new scenes and family cares she 
continued to write, and her poems read by thousands 
unknown to her: one such expressed in verse the following 
appreciation of her poem: — 

Unknown thy home, unseen thy smile — 
But not unheard thy gentle lays: 
A stranger's mind they oft beguile — 
They move her to attempt thy praise. 

Thy songs have touched responsive chords 
In many a heart unknown to thee. 
And thoughts unutterable in words. 
Are stirred by thy sweet minstrelsy. 

Though never in this earthly clime. 
Shall be my lot to meet with thee. 
My soul a union feels with thine, 
A friendship, fervent and divine 
And lasting as eternity. 
East Bethany, N. Y. E. T. 



49 

Death entered the family at Philadelphia, taking from 
it Mary Cornelia Corey, Mrs. Edmond's youngest sister, a 
beautiful young woman, who made her home with the family. 
Family affections and ties were strong with them, and their 
parting was sorrowful. While residing in Philadelphia Mrs. 
Edmond visited Washington, Mount Vernon, and viewed the 
Monument in process of erection to the memory of Wash- 
ington ; of this she wrote : — 

From New England's vales of beauty. 

From the stem old granite hills, 
Where in battle's stormy duty 

Blood was poured in crimson rills; 
From the homes where freemen cherish 

Like a household word his name, 
Come, with gifts that shall not perish 

To adorn the spire of Fame ! 

From the South, whose broad dominions 

Glow beneath a warmer sun, 
Where our eagle furls her pinions 

O'er the grave of Washington; 
Where he fought and scorned to falter 

In the darkest hour of strife, 
Come, with offerings for his altar, — 

His, who gave our freedom life ! 

Genius of a mighty nation ! 

Speed the work with earnest hand, 
Till in one subUme creation 

All the vast memorials stand 
On the spire that points eternal 

To the shining path he trod; 
With his name forever vernal. 

Freedom's son, the gift of God! 

Mrs. Edmond longed for the scenes of her childhood and 
her friends in Brookline, and the family returned from Phila- 
delphia to Cypress street, opposite the old house and "ancient 
elms" and Mrs. Edmond Uved there for the remainder of her 
life. There her last child was born, and there she continued 
to write whenever a moment could be spared from household 
duties. 



50 

At the dedication of the BrookHne Baptist Meeting-house, 
December 1, 1858, she wrote the following poem:— 

Eternal Father ! Sovereign Lord ! 

We read, recorded in thy word 

Thy servants built a house of prayer. 

And thou didst meet and bless them there. 

So, longing here thy face to see, 
A temple, Lord, we build to thee; 
Oh, let the sacred fire appear 
Upon the new-made altar here ! 

Come, thou celestial spirit, come, 
And make these earthly courts thy home; 
Here oft the burdened soul relieve, 
And bid the mourner cease to grieve. 

O Cross ! whereon to bleed and die 
Our Ransom was uplifted high; 
The memory of the thorn, the spear. 
Forever be exalted here ! 

Here, Lord, may age grow ripe for heaven, 
And manhood's strength to thee be given; 
Youth in its freshness seek thy face, 
And childhood sing thy saving grace. 

So shall these earthly courts prepare 
Our souls for nobler worship, where 
The temple of thy glory stands, — 
The heavenly house not made with hands. 

Rev. William Lamson, D. D., was installed pastor of the 
BrookHne Baptist Church, in the new meeting-house Janu- 
ary 29, 1860, and for that occasion Mrs. Edmond wrote the 
following verses: — 

Welcome ! thou servant of the Lord ! 

Welcome, this flock of God to lead 
Through the rich pastures of his word, 

And on his promises to feed. 

Welcome, for us, with words divine 

To break the sacramental bread. 
And pour the emblematic wine, — 

Type of the blood our Ransom shed. 



51 

Stand on our Zion's walls and lift 

Before the mourner's weeping eye 
Salvation's priceless, peerless gift, 

The Cross upreared on Calvary. 

Welcome for our souls to watch, and pray, 
With love that faith makes strong and bold, 

While we thine hands unwearied stay. 
As Aaron's hands were stayed of old. 

^Welcome our griefs and joys to share. 
Thine shall be ours, and ours thine. 
Each others burdens will we share 
Before the throne of grace divine. 

Almighty God ! whose sovereign will 

Ordains such unions here in thee. 
Now with thyself this people fill, 

So to thy glory it shall be ! 

Mrs. Edmond's poetry was, for the most part, of a medita- 
tive and religious nature, although it was jocular and merry, 
when occasion required; with children her smile was 
sunny and her voice reassuring. For a Union Sunday 
school picnic, she wrote: — 

All hail to the picnic ! all hail to the grove ! 
'Mid scenes of enchantment delighted we rove; 
Dame Nature affords us a glorious hall. 
And a carpet, the best in the world, for a ball. 

All hail to the meeting of warm hearts and true, 
To pastors and peoples, the Old and the New! 
Though varied the creed that our hearts may approve, 
We have but one banner, the banner of love. 

Here's a flock from the hill-tops magnificent edge. 
Kept firm in the faith by an excellent Hedge: 
Here's one from the vale, that's surprisingly grown. 
When we know all the food which they get is from Stone. 

Here's another so fortunate lately to find 

A well-polished Diamond (Diman), that cuts to their mind; 

And the lovers of truth and the seekers of good, 

That never need stray while there's hay in their Wood. 

And here are our friends that are zealous in soul 

For the use of cold water applied as a whole; 

Let them grow in their faith, if they like, and be strong, 

For if they are right, then some others are wrong. 



52 

All hail to the President ! safe o'er the track 

His pass brought us here and will carry us back; 

Our thanks we'll pass him, — small pay it is true, 

But he'll get something better when such bills become due. 

Oh, fill up the goblets with wine of the lake, 
And sit at the banquet where all may partake; 
Here's beauty and eloquence, music and mirth, 
Here's union and talent, and all kinds of worth. 

Overflowing with pleasure, pure-pleasure like this. 
Let us pass round the cup, drinking deep of its bliss; 
Enjoy the bright moments, and when they are flown, 
From the homes of the birds we'll depart for our own. 

Mrs. Edmond entered with zest into the spirit of children's 
sports and pastimes, and in her enthusiasm was again a child 
in feeHng whenever she witnessed their innocent gambols 
and play. She wrote much in that line, but we must be con- 
tent with quoting, "The Frolic in the Snow": — 

Play on, play on while the feathery snow 

From the sky comes whirling past; 
Thy cheeks are bright with a crimson glow. 
The rose that blooms when the north winds blow. 

When the pulse of youth beats fast. 

What dost thou heed, light-hearted child. 

Who knowest no care nor pain? 
Though cold be the breath of the winter wild. 
And the sun since yesterday hath not smiled 

On the ice-bound hill and plain. 

The hearth in thy home is bright and warm, 

Unfelt is the piercing air; 
Oh, naught to thee is the biting storm 
Raging without, while a mother's form 

Hovers in kindness there. 

Play on; for the days of youth are fleet. 

From wearisome burdens free; 
Life's earliest cup is the cup most sweet, 
And the merriest pulse is first to beat. 

As it beats today in thee. 

When burdened life shall thy heart appal. 

As the years shall come and go. 
And golden castles dissolve and fall, 
With a sigh, perchance, thou wilt recall 

Thy frolic amid the snow. 



53 

Tenderly sympathetic for down-trodden and suffering 
humanity, we should expect Mrs. Edmond to espouse the 
cause of the slave in our Southern States, and that she 
should from time to time wield her pen in his behalf ; for the 
amelioration of his condition and for his ultimate freedom. 

With prophetic vision she saw the rising storm, and the 
conflict of arms and the battle that was to be waged, and 
with never failing faith that right would triumph over 
wrong, she shrank not from the sight. When the Civil War 
came, her youngest brother sharing her feelings and beliefs, 
enlisted in the Union army. She encouraged and cheered 
him on, followed him with her prayers and with tender, 
sisterly letters of cheer. And although she did not live 
to see the close of the War, she followed closely its course 
while she did live, rejoicing when the Union forces were 
successful, and lamenting when news came that they were 
defeated. She wrote a poem bearing the title of "Freedom's 
Champions," which so well summed up the situation just 
before the clash of arms came, that it is here quoted in full: — 

Children of a Southern soil, 
Holders of unlawful spoil. 
Ye, whose groaning thousands toil 
In their hopeless misery, — • 

Hear ye not the battle cry 
That proclaims the warfare nigh, 
When the oppressor's rank shall lie 
Slain by Freedom's champions? 

•On they come in holy might. 
Men of foulest crime to smight 
With the keen-edged sword of Right 
And the steel of Liberty. 

Ye may draw the fetters strong 
Round the victims of your wrong; 
Justice shall not linger long. 

Vengeance cometh speedily. 

God hath heard the cry of him 
With the mangled, fettered limb, 
And the eye with weeping dim, 
In the grasp of slavery. 



54 

God hath heard, and not in vain; 
And his fires of wrath shall rain 
Death upon the Southern plain, — 
Land of shame and cruelty. 

Ye whose hearts some pity crave 
For the scorned, degraded slave. 
Longing for a quiet grave 

Haste, avenge his injuries. 

Onward, brothers, hand in hand, 
God shall aid his chosen band, 
Drive the oppressors from the land; 
Onward, brothers, fearlessly. 

Gathered from the East and West 
And the North, the noblest, the best, 
From the South the rod to wrest 
Of her shameful tyranny. 

Craven hearts that shrink through fear, 
Dare not in our ranks appear; 
What do we with cowards here. 
Baser spirits wavering ! 

What are ye but those in part 
Who defend the human mart. 
Though ye hold with such no part 
Kindred in their infamy? 

But the bold the true shall be, 
In our strife on land and sea, 
Ending not till earth is free, — 
Ay, and free eternally ! 

Men of single hearts and hands, 
Fired with zeal, the cause demands; 
Those shall make our stalwart bands, 
These shall conquer slavery. 



The dread disease, consumption, fastened its fangs upon 
Mrs. Edmond, but she continued to write even in her weak- 
ness and to be cheerful in suffering. She was aware that hei 
life was drawing to its close. She clung to life, for it had 
been a joy to her. In the autumn of 1861 the approaching 
end seemed near, but she lingered until the folowing May at 
the portals, waiting for the summons to enter into rest. 



55 

During that period she was sohcitous for others, grateful for 
attentions shown her, and the beauties of her character shone 
brightly. Her farewells to husband, children, friends, and 
her messages to her church and Sunday school were legacies 
more prized than gold. Two nights before her death, in 
suffering and expecting any hour to be her last, she said, "If 
any asked how I die, tell them in the triumphs of faith and 
hope, looking for salvation alone through my Lord and 
Saviour, Jesus Christ." As the final hour drew near she 
thanked her physician, who stood near her bed, for his kind 
attentions, and in a clear voice repeated these lines: — 

Sweet land of rest, for thee I sigh; 

When will the moment come 
When I shall lay my armor by 

And dwell with Christ at home? 

And then she fell asleep, and never woke again to the 
scenes of this life. 

While in sickness she composed some verses and en- 
trusted them two days before her death to the care of a 
friend to give them to her husband after she had passed 
on. They were farewells to husband, children and friends, 
and were as follows: — 

Keep me not here while I tremble and shiver; 

Stay not my feet where the dark waters be; 
For over the river, just over the river, 

Amy and Jenny are waiting for me. 

Hark to the sound ! the sweet sound of voices. 
Lovingly, tenderly, 'Come, mother, come!' 

Oh, how my spirit exulting rejoices, — 

Darlings, I'm coming, I'm nearing my home! 

Dearer than children, than father or mother, 
Watching and waiting, there's one by my side, 

Next to my Saviour, and next to no other, — 
He who once won me and made me his bride. 

How can I leave thee, beloved of my bosom? 
How can I leave thee to wander alone? 
Blessed Redeemer, oh, comfort the mourner. 

Fold thou his wounded heart close to thine own. 



56 

Children, dear children, so dear to me never, 

Now is the cup of our agony given; 
Now must we part, but we part not forever, — 

I have loved you on earth, I shall love you in heaven. 

Friends, gentle friends, who have strewn my sick pillows 
With blossoms of hope, of peace, and of love, — 

Sister, sweet sister, away on the billows, 
Brothers beloved, I shall meet you above." 

"Sister, sweet sister, away on the billows," was the wife of 
the writer, and for ten years the companion of his voyagings 
about the globe; they heard of Mrs. Edmond's death at Mel- 
bourne, Australia, in August after its occurrence in May, 
through Mr. Newell, a resident of Melbourne, a friend and 
former resident of Brookline. It was sad news, though not 
entirely unexpected. 

Mrs. Edmond died May 30, 1862, in the thirty-eighth 
year of her age. Her funeral was held in the Brookline Bap- 
tist Church, June 1st. Rev. William Lamson, D. D., 
officiated, and the burial was on the central ridge of 
the Walnut Street cemetery beside Amy and Jenny, and 
her father and mother. Later her husband and sons 
followed her, and they were buried beside her, leaving 
space for the two remaining daughters. Flora Amanda 
and Theodora Augusta. Although but thirty-seven and one- 
half at the time of her demise, Mrs. Edmond had written 
much, made hosts of friends, and was mourned by many 
whose only acquaintance with her was through her writings. 

The editor of the Philadelphia Chronicle wrote concerning 
her: — "The announcement of Mrs. Edmond's death will cause 
a pang of anguish in many hearts. Those who have read her 
sweet poems, and the children who have been entertained 
and instructed by her stories of "Willie Grant," "Over the 
Sea," "The Vase of Flowers," "Early Days," "Philip Gar- 
land," "The Forget-me-not," etc., will all be mourners. There 
was an ease and grace in Mrs. Edmond's compositions which 
made them agreeable and impressive. Their style was nothing 
careless, dashing or overwrought, which kept the reader 
disputing every moment with his reason and better judg- 
ment, but every scene and illustration harmonized with and 
deepened his conviction of right. And best of all, her private 



57 

character was in harmony with the spirit her pen inculcated. 
The social and domestic pathway of her life was kept con- 
stantly cheerful and happy. Mrs. Edmond still lives in the 
hearts of her friends, and lives in her works." 

Miss Harriet Woods, her life-long friend, author of "His- 
torical Sketches of Brookline," and an acceptable writer of 
prose and poetry, wrote of her: — 

"This lovely first Sabbath in June has brought sorrow to 
many hearts, for today our dear friend, Mrs. Edmond, has 
been borne away to her long home. She made an effort to 
live for the sake of her family, and until a week ago had 
hoped to live till autumn, if no longer, but when the conviction 
fastened upon her that her days were numbered, she cheerfully 
resigned herself, made all her arrangements, gave her parting 
messages, took leave of allher dear ones, and waited with long- 
ing hope the hour of her release. . . . Thus her lovely last 
hours left precious memories. She never seemed to dwell upon 
herself, or her sickness to those who came in, but always 
thought of others. Her death has left a void that no other 
life can fill. Since I was six years old I had known her in 
school and at home, and I never saw her temper ruffled. 
She has been the first to die of a class of six of us Sunday 
school scholars, who were baptized together, upwards of 
twenty years ago." 

"Long ago she wrote thus of Christian hope: — 

"Thanks be to God, though sin and strife 
Oppress us till our latest breath, 
Life here is not our only life. 

And death is not forever death. 
O joyful season ! welcome day ! 

That sees our earthly fetters riven; 

Speed, tardy hours, your dull delay, — 
Your faster flight, my sooner heaven." 

And in that heaven she worships today, while we wait sorrow- 
ing a little longer." 

Miss Woods wrote the following lines in memoriam : — 

"Spring comes ! The forms of life she loved 

Begin to stir, 
And not a butterfly or bud but brings 

Memories of her. 
All bright-hued flowers that bloom, the pink, 

The tulip and the rose, 



58 

The sweet, wild berries of the wood, beside 

The brook that flows 
Through violet-scented meadows, and the breath 

Of south winds o'er the hill, — 
All earth awakening from its winter death 

Recalls her still. 
Whitsunday cometh silent, in the garb 

Of fragrant May 
And incense-breathing orchards stand again 

In white array. 
Sacred its memory ever; since her eyes 

Looked forth in calm delight 
On her last earthly Sabbath, — on the trees 

Arrayed in white; 
And ere June dawned upon the waiting earth, 

The summons given 
Called her from their fresh beauties, to the flowers 

Fadeless in heaven." 

From the pen of her pastor, Rev. William Lamson, D. D., 
came the following just and beautiful tribute to the life and 
character of Mrs. Edmond : — 

"Amanda M. Edmond is the name of one, who, not quite a 
year since, left us for her home above. She lives in the 
memory of friends, enshrined in the affections of many loving 
hearts, and needs for them, no record of her virtues. But 
it is never amiss to stop a moment beside the grave of de- 
parted worth and recall the excellence of one whom we have 
loved. It was on the first Sabbath of last June that we bore 
her sleeping body to the sanctuary in which she had delighted 
to worship, and thence to its last silent home. 

■'It seemed fitting that she, who so loved nature, to whom 
every bud and blossom and spire of grass had a charm, should 
see it for the last time in its dress of beauty, and feel that it 
smiled lovingly on her as she closed her eyes upon it. There 
is no gloom in such a burial. 

"When quite young she developed an ability, uncommon for 
her years, and that ability grew till she became an accom- 
plished writer, widely known by the productions of her pen. 
Thousands who never saw her have been consoled and cheered 
by her sweet hymns, or instructed and guided by her stories 
for the young. Beside the many fugitive pieces scattered 
through papers and monthlies, she added ten choice volumes 
to our Sunday school literature, a volume to our religious 



59, 

biography, the memoir of the missionary, Mrs. Comstock, her 
early friend, and pubhshed a volume of poems, entitled, from 
the principal piece in it "The Broken Vow." She also edited 
for a series of years, the beautiful little annual. The Ladies' 
Almanac. 

"It is with no little surprise that we look at the amount of 
her productions, remembering that they were written in the 
midst of domestic cares never neglected, and many of them 
during years of failing health. But she had a rare facility of 
uniting literary labor with the daily duties of life, — of drop- 
ping her pen for the toil of the kitchen, and returning to it at 
the first leisure, as though there had been no interruption. 

"Whom the Lord loveth he chasteneth. Our friend did 
not escape the discipline of sorrow. Within a few weeks her 
Father saw fit to take to himself two precious jewels, whom 
for a season he had loaned her, and on whom her heart had 
become too strongly fixed. Little Amy and Jenny were get- 
ting between her and her God, and he loved her too well to 
permit it. It was a crushing blow. For a season she re- 
fused to be consoled,— could not see the wisdom or goodness 
of providence. All was fearfully dark, and her spirit rose 
and murmured against God. Faith gained the ascendancy, 
and she bowed her whole heart lovingly, submissively, to the 
Divine chastening. She painted the struggle as no other 
could in the exquisite lines on Little Amy: — 

Of all the prayers that test my faith, 

This is the hardest one, 
To gaze on that dear face in death. 

And say, 'Thy will be done.' 

O thou who hast, with hand unseen, 

Removed the loved to Thee, 
Come now, with helping grace, between 

The little child and me ! 

"The helping grace came. God himself filled the place 
made sorrowfully vacant by that which he had taken away. 
She lived to say from a full heart, as did David, 'It is good for 
me that I have been afflicted.' 

' Some four years since, her watchful friends began to fear 
the approaches of that insidious and fatal disease that every 
year desolates so many of our New England homes. She, too. 



GO 

saw it, and set herself resolutely to contend against it. She 
clung to life. It had been a joy to her and was a joy still. 
The future was full of promise. 

" 'Why,' said she, 'should I not try to live as long as I can, 
when I have everything to live for?' And right earnestly did 
she struggle, at times seeming almost to have gained the 
victory. But in the autumn of 1861, indications of the 
approaching end became more and more decisive. Yet 
during the winter months which followed, chiefly for the sake 
of those she loved, we now think, did she talk cheerfully and 
hopefully of her case. But when the Father's will was 
too plain to be mistaken, she resigned herself at once 
and wholly to his disposal. Every mortal wish was hushed, 
and every fear banished. With thoughtful solicitude for 
others, grateful for every human attention, and overflowing 
with thankfulness to God, she lingered for a few days at 
Heaven's portals, waiting the summons to enter. 

"It was during these days, in the intervals of her suffering, 
that the moral and spiritual beauties of her character shone 
most brightly. Her farewells to husband, children and 
friends, and her messages to the church and Sabbath school, 
are legacies more prized than gold. As the final hour drew 
near, she turned her eyes to her physician, who stood by her 
bedside, thanked him for his kind attentions, and then, with 
a clear, full voice, as in health, repeated these lines: — 

"Sweet land of rest, for thee I sigh; 
When will the moment come 
When I shall lay my armor by, 
And dwell with Christ at home?" 

One does not fail to notice in the writings of Mrs. Edmond 
her love of her native town, family, friends and children; her 
love of purity and of her Divine Master. Her own mind and 
thought were as pure as newly fallen snow, and sparkle in 
her writings as snow sparkles in the sunlight. 

Forty-six years have rolled by since she wrote the farewell 
lines to husband and kindred, laid down her pen, and her 
spirit took its flight from earthly scenes. Her husband, sisters, 
brothers and children, except two unmarried daughters in 
another state, and two grandchildren, and all her early 
friends, have followed her. 



61 

In life she loved by many, and known by thousands 
through her writings, which had consoled and cheered them. 
And yet, so evanescent are the lives and doings of mortals, 
that probably not one hundred of Brookline's present 
inhabitants have personal recollections of her, and to the 
masses even her name is unknown. 

It is the province of this society to gather from the dust of 
forgetfulness the history of the families and individuals of 
our town for preservation, and to publish the same when 
deemed expedient. In fulfilment of that purpose, this sketch 
of the life of Mrs. Edmond has been prepared, that it may be 
preserved in the archives of the Society, as a memorial of a 
native resident who by common consent was entitled to be 
called A Brookline Poetess. 



No. 9016. 

Commonwealth of (TDassacbusetts* 



Be it fenoton That whereas Rufus George Frederick Candage, 
Edward Wild Baker, Julia Goddard, John Emory Hoar, 
Harriet Alma Cummings, Charles Henry Stearns, James 
Macmaster Codman, Jr., Charles French Read, Edwin 
Birchard Cox, Willard Y. Gross, Charles Knowles Bolton, 
Tappan Eustis Francis, Desmond FitzGerald, D. S. Sanford, 
and Martha A. Kittredge have associated themselves with the inten- 
tion of forming a corporation under the name of the 

Broof?line TDistorlcal Society, 

for the purpose of the study of the history of the town of Brookline, 
Massachusetts, its societies, organizations, famiUes, individuals, and 
events, the collection and preservation of its antiquities, the establish- 
ment and maintenance of an historical library, and the publication from 
time to time of such information relating to the same as shall be deemed 
expedient, and have complied with the provisions of the statutes of this 
Commonwealth in such case made and provided, as appears from the 
certificate of the President, Treasurer, and Directors of said corporation, 
duly approved by the Commissioner of Corporations and recorded in 
this office ; 

^a'to, t\)txtloxt, C, William M. Olin, Secretary of the Commonweath of 
Massachusetts, lio {)crebg certtfg, that said Rufus George Frederick 
Candage, Edward Wild Baker, Julia Goddard, John Emory 
Hoar, Harriet Alma Cummings, Charles Henry Stearns, 
James Macmaster Codman, Jr., Charles French Read, Edwin 
Birchard Cox, Willard Y. Gross, Charles Knowles Bolton, 
Tappan Eustis Francis, Desmond FitzGerald, D. S. Sanford, 
and Martha A. Kittredge, their associates and successors, are legally 
organized and established as and are hereby made an existing corpora- 
tion under the name of the 

Broofeline Distorical Society, 

with the powers, rights and privileges, and subject to the limitations, 
duties and restrictions, which by law appertain thereto. 

SHttnrss my official signature hereunto sub- 
scribed, and the seal of the Commonwealth 
of Massachusetts hereunto affixed, this 
twenty-ninth day of April, in the year of our 
Lord one thousand nine hundred and one. 
Wm. M. Olin, 
Secretary of the Commonwealth. 




BROOKLINE HISTORICAL SOCIETY. 



OFFICERS AND COMMITTEES. 
1909. 

President Emeritus. 

RUFUS G. F. Candage. 

President. 

Charles H. Stearns. 

Vice-President. 

William O. Comstock. 

Treasurer. 

Edward W. Baker. 

Clerk. 

Charles F. White. 

Trustees. 

Charles H. Stearns. Mrs. Martha Kittredge. 

Edward W. Baker. Charles F. White. 

Miss Julia Goddard. William O. Comstock. 

Joseph McKey. 

Committee on Finance. 

James M. Codman, Jr. Ernest B. Dane. 

Charles H. Stearns, ex-ofjicio. 

Committee on the Rooms. 

Miss Julia Goddard. Mrs. Susan Vining Griggs. 

Henry W. Lamb. 

Charles H. ^TE.KR.liS, President. \ n- ■■ 

Charles F. White, Clerk. '^ex-o-nicits. 

Committee on Library. 

Frederick H. Hedge. Henry D. Eustis. 

Luther M. Merrill. John H. Sherburne, Jr. 

Committee on Papers. 

William O. Comstock. Joseph McKey. 

Mrs. Louie D. White. 

Committee on Membership. 

George S. Mann. James Adams. 

Miss Louise Howe. Willard Y. Gross. 

Committee on Publications. 

Charles F. Read. Edward W. Baker. 

Charles F. White. 



MEMBERS 



t Benefactors 
Adams, Benjamin F. 
Adams, Frank Sydney 
Adams, James 

Addison, Daniel Dulany (D. D.) 
Arnold, Mrs. Tirzah S. 
Aspinwall, Thomas 
♦Atkinson, Mrs. Mary Caroline 

Bailey, Arthur H. 

Baker, Charles M. 

Baker, Mrs. Edith C. 

Baker, Edward Wild 

Bates, Jacob P. 

Beck, Frederick 

Bickford, Scott F. 

Blanchard, Benj. Seaver (M. D.) 

Boit, Mrs. Robert A. 

Bowker, Edwin P. 

Burdett, Frank W. 

Cabot, Elizabeth Rogers 
tCandage, Rufus Geo. Frederick 
tCandage, Mrs. Ella Marie 

Candage, Robert Brooks 

Carroll, B. Frank 

Chandler, Alfred Dupont 

Channing, Walter (M. D.) 
*Chase, Caleb 

Chase, Miss Ellen 

Clapp, Miss Mary C. 

Clement, Thomas W. 

Codman, James Macmaster 

Codman, James Macmaster, Jr. 

Cole, Samuel W. 

Comstock, William Ogilvie 
fConant, Lewis S. 

Conant, Nathaniel 

CooHdge, Miss Ellen G. 

Cox, Edwin Birchard 

Craig, William 
tCummings, Prentiss 



tLife Members 
J Dane, Ernest B. 

Davenport, Francis H. 

Davis, George Peabody 

Dearborn, George F. 

Doliber, Thomas 
fDoliber, Mrs. Ada Ripley 

DolUver, Mrs. Ella Augusta 

DriscoU, Michael 

Duncklee, Charles B. 

Estabrook, Willard W. 
tEustis, Miss Elizabeth M. 
tEustis, Henry Dutton 

Eustis, Joseph Tracy 
tEustis, Miss Mary St. Barbe 

Fay, James H. 
tFish, Mrs. Clara P. 

Fish, Frederick Perry 

FitzGerald, Desmond 
tFitzpatrick, Thomas B. 

Fleming, John F. 
*Folsom, Albert Alonzo 

Folsom, Mrs. Julia Elizabeth 

Francis, Carleton S. (M. D.) 

Francis, George H. (M. D.) 
*Francis, Tappan Eustis (M. D.) 

French, Alexis H. 

Gaither, Charles Perry 
tGay, Frederick Lewis 

Gibbs, Emerj'' B. 
tGoddard, Miss Julia 
jGoddard, Mary Louisa 

Gray, William H. 

Griggs, Mrs. Susan Vining 

Guild, Mrs. Sarah E. M. 

Hedge, Frederick H. 
tHill, William Henry 
Hoar, David Blakely 



*Deceased. 



68 



Hobbs, Franklin W. 
Hopkins, Charles A. 
Hook, Miss Maria C. 
Hough, Benjamin Kent 
Howe, Miss Harriet Augusta 
Howe, Miss Louise 
Hunt, William D. 
Hunt, Mrs. WilHam D. 

Jones, Mrs. Sarah Gavett 
t Jones, Jerome 

Kenrick, Alfred Eugene 
t Kimball, Miss Helen Frances 
tKimball, Lulu Stacy 
tKittredge, Mrs. Martha A. 

Lamb, Henry Whitney 
Lamb, Miss Augusta T. 
Lauriat, Charles E. 
*LeMoyne, Macpherson 
Lincoln, Albert Lamb 
Lincoln, William E. 
Lincoln, Mrs. William Edwards 
Lincoln, William Henry 
Little, James Lovell 
Longyear, John M. 
Luke, Otis H. 
Lyon, William Henry (D. D.) 

Mann, George Sumner 
Mason, Frank H. 
Maxwell, George Frederic 
Merrill, Frank A. 
tMerrill, Luther M. 
Mortimer, Sara White Lee 
Mowry, Oscar B. 
McKey, Joseph 
McKey, Mrs. W. R. 
Murphy, James S. 

Norton, Fred L. 

OBrion, Thomas Leland 
Otis, Herbert Foster 

Palmer, Mrs. Emma L. 
Parsons, William E. 
Pattee, Mrs. Eleanor T. 



Pearson, Charles Henry 
iPerry, Arthur 
Poor, Miss Agnes Blake 
Poor, Mrs. Lillie Oliver 
Poor, Mrs. Mary W. 
Poor, James Ridgway 
Pope, Arthur Wallace 
Porter, Georgia M. Whidden 

Read, Charles French 
tRichardson, Frederic Leopold 
William 
Richardson, Henry Hobson 
Ritchie, Andrew Montgomery 
Rooney, James C. 

Sabine, George K. (M. D.) 

Salisbury, Wm. Cabot Gorham 
t Sargent, Charles Sprague 

Saunders, Joseph H. (M. D.) 

Saxe, John W. 

Seaver, William James 

Sedgwick, William T. 

Shaw, James F. 

Sherburne, John H., Jr. 

Snow, Franklin Augustus 

Spencer, Charles A. W. 

Stearns, Charles Henry 

Steams, James Pierce 

Steams, William Bramhall 
♦Stevens, Mrs. Mary Louise 

Stone, Galen L. 

Storrow, Charles 

Swan, Reuben S. 
*Swan, Robert Thaxter 

Swan, Mrs. Robert T. 

tTalbot, Fritz B. (M. D.) 
Thayer, Frank Bartlett 

Utley, Charles H. 

Walker, Nathaniel U. 

Ware, Henry 

Warren, Edward R. 

Watson, Mrs. Eliza Tilden God- 

dard 
Wead, Leslie C. 
Whitcomb, Lawrence 



69 



White, Charles F. 
White, Mrs. Louie D. 
White, Francis A. 
White, William H. 
White, William Howard 
White, WilHam Ome (D. D.) 
Whiting, John K. 
Whitman, William 
Whitney, Henry H. 
Wight, Lewis 
tWightman, George H. 



Wilcutt, Levi Lincoln 

Williams, Charles A. 

Williams, Mrs. ElizabethWhitney 

Williams, Moses 

Woods, J. Henry (M. D.) 

Wright, Mrs. Mary Watson 

Young, WilHam Hill 

CORRESPONDING MEMBER. 
Ricker, Mrs. Emeline Carr 



BROOKLINE HISTORICAL SOCIETY. 



BY-LAWS. 

ARTICLE I. 

NAME. 

The name of this corporation shall be Brookline Historical 
Society, 

ARTICLE II. 

OBJECTS. 

The objects of this Society shall be the study of the history of 
the town of Brookline, Massachusetts, its societies, organizations, 
families, individuals, events ; the collection and preservation of its 
antiquities, the establishment and maintenance of an historical 
library, and the publication from time to time of such information 
relating to the same as shall be deemed expedient. 

ARTICLE III. 

MEMBERSHIP. 

Any person of moral character who shall be nominated and 
approved by the Board of Trustees may be elected to membership 
by ballot of two-thirds of the members present and voting thereon 
at any regular meeting of the Society. Each person so elected 
shall pay an admission fee of three dollars, and an annual assess- 
ment of two dollars ; and any member who shall fail for two con- 
secutive years to pay the annual assessment shall cease to be a 
member of this Society ; provided, however, that any member who 
shall pay twenty-five dollars in any one year may thereby become 
a Life member ; and any member who shall pay fifty dollars in any 
one year may thereby become a Benefactor of the Society, and 
thereafter shall be free from all dues and assessments. The money 
received from Life members and Benefactors shall constitute a 
fund, of which not more than twenty per cent, together with the 
annual income therefrom, shall be spent in any one year. 

The Society may elect Honorary and Corresponding members 
in the manner in which annual members are elected, but they shall 
have no voice in the management of the Society, and shall not be 
subject to fee or assessment. 

ARTICLE IV. 

CERTIFICATES. 

Certificates signed by the President and the Clerk may be issued 
to all persons who become Life members, and to Benefactors. 



ARTICLE V. 

OFFICERS. 

The officers of this Society shall be seven Trustees, a President, 
a Vice-President, a Secretary (who shall be Clerk of the Society 
and may also be elected to fill the office of Treasurer), and a 
Treasurer, who, together, shall constitute the Board of Trustees. 
The Trustees, Clerk, and Treasurer shall be chosen by ballot at 
the annual meeting in January, and shall hold office for one year, 
and until others are chosen and qualified in their stead. The 
President and Vice-President shall be chosen by the Board of 
Trustees from their number at their first meeting after their 
election, or at an adjournment thereof. The officers of the Society 
shall also include a President Emeritus when the Society shall so 
vote. 

ARTICLE VI. 

MEETINGS. 

The annual meeting of this Society shall be held on the third 
Wednesday of January. Regular stated meetings shall be held on 
the third Wednesday of February, March, April, May, October, 
November, and December. 

Special meetings may be called by order of the Board of Trus- 
tees. The Clerk shall notify each member by a written or printed 
notice sent through the mail postpaid at least three days before 
the time of meeting, or by publishing such notice in one or more 
newspapers published in Brookline. 

At all meetings of the Society ten (lo) members shall constitute 
a quorum for the transaction of business. 

The meetings of the Board of Trustees shall be called by the 
Clerk at the request of the President, by giving each member 
personal or written notice, or by sending such notice by mail, post- 
paid, at least twenty'-four hours before the time of such meeting; 
but meetings where all the Trustees are present may be held with- 
out such notice. The President shall call meetings of the Board 
of Trustees at the request of any three members thereof. A 
majority of its members shall constitute a quorum for the transac- 
tion of business. 

ARTICLE VII. 

VACANCIES. 

Vacancies in the offices of Trustees, Clerk, or Treasurer maybe 
filled for the remainder of the term at any regular meeting of the 
Society by the vote of two-thirds of the members present and 
voting. In the absence of the Clerk at a meeting of the Society, a 
Clerk pro tempore shall be chosen. 



Ill 
ARTICLE VIII. 

NOMINATING COMMITTEE. 

At the monthly meeting in December, a Nominating Committee 
of three members shall be appointed by the presiding officer, who 
shall report at the annual meeting a list of candidates for the 
places to be filled. 

ARTICLE IX. 

PRESIDING OFFICER. 

The President, or in his absence the Vice-President, shall pre- 
side at all meetings of the Society. In the absence of those 
officers a President /n? tempore shall be chosen. 

ARTICLE X. 

DUTIES OF THE CLERK. 

The Clerk shall be sworn to the faithful discharge of his duties. 
He shall notify members of all meetings of the Society, and shall 
keep an exact record of all the proceedings of the Society at its 
meetings. 

He shall conduct the general correspondence of the Society and 
place on file all letters received. 

He shall enter the names of members in order in books or cards 
kept for that purpose, and issue certificates to Life members and to 
Benefactors. 

He shall have charge of such property in possession of the 
Society as may from time to time be delegated to him by the Board 
of Trustees. 

He shall acknowledge all loans or gifts made to the Society. 

ARTICLE XI. 

DUTIES OF THE TREASURER. 

The Treasurer shall collect all moneys due the Society, and pay 
all bills against the Society when approved by the Board of 
Trustees. He shall keep a full account of receipts and expendi- 
tures in a book belonging to the Society, which shall always be 
open to the inspection of the Trustees ; and at the annual meeting 
in January he shall make a written report of all his doings for the 
year preceding. The Treasurer shall give bonds in such sum, with 
surety, as the Trustees may fix, for the faithful discharge of his 
duties. 

ARTICLE XII. 

DUTIES AND POWERS OF TRUSTEES. 

The Board of Trustees shall superintend the prudential and 
executive business of the Society, authorize all expenditures of 



IV 

money, fix all salaries, provide a common seal, receive and act 
upon all resignations and forfeitures of membership, and see that 
the by-laws are duly complied with. The Board of Trustees shall 
have full powers to hire, lease, or arrange for a suitable home for 
the Society, and to make all necessary rules and regulations 
required in the premises. 

They shall make a report of their doings at the annual meeting 
of the Society. 

They may from time to time appoint such sub-committees from 
their own number as they deem expedient. 

In case of a vacancy in the office of Clerk or Treasurer they 
shall have power to choose the same pro tempore till the next 
meeting of the Society. 

ARTICLE XIII. 

STANDING COMMITTEES. 

The President shall annually, in the month of January, appoint 
four standing committees, as follows : — 

Committee on Rooms. 
A committee of three members, to be styled the " Committee on 
Rooms," to which shall be added the President and Clerk of the 
Society ex-officio, who shall have charge of all arrangements of 
the rooms (except books, manuscripts, and other objects appro- 
priate to the library offered as gifts or loans), the hanging of 
pictures, and the general arrangements of the Society's collection 
in their department. 

Comt?iittee on Papers. 
A committee of three members, to be styled the " Committee on 
Papers," who shall have charge of the subjects of papers to be 
read, or other exercises of a profitable nature, at the monthly 
meetings of the Society. 

Committee on Met7ibership. 

A committee of three or more members, to be styled the " Com- 
mittee on Membership," whose duty it shall be to give information 
in regard to the purposes of the Society, and increase its mem- 
bership. 

Committee on Library. 

A committee of three or more members, to be styled the " Com- 
mittee on Library," who shall have charge of the arrangements of 
the library, including acceptance and rejection of books, manu- 
scripts, and other objects tendered to the library, and the general 
arrangement of the Society's collections in that department. 



These four committees shall perform their duties as above set 
forth under the general direction and supervision of the Board of 
Trustees. 

Vacancies that occur in any of these committees during their 
term of service shall be filled by the President. 

ARTICLE XIV. 

FINANCE COMMITTEE. 

The President shall annually, in the month of January, appoint 
two members, who, with the President, shall constitute the Com- 
mittee on Finance, to examine from time to time the books and 
accounts of the Treasurer, to audit his accounts at the close of the 
year, and to report upon the expediency of proposed expenditures 
of money. 

ARTICLE XV. 

AMENDMENTS. 

These by-laws may be altered or amended at any regular meeting 
by a two-thirds vote of the members present, notice of the subject- 
matter of the proposed alterations or amendments having been 
given at a previous meeting. 




PROCEEDINGS 



OF THE 



Brookline Historical Society 



AT THE 



ANNUAL MEETING, JANUARY 19, I910 



PROCEEDINGS 



OF THE 



Brookline Historical Society 



AT THE 



ANNUAL MEETING, JANUARY 19, 1910 




BROOKLINE, MASS.: 
PUBLISHED BY THE SOCIETY 

M CM X 



V 1^ 



Committee on Publications. 

Charles F. Read. Edward W. Baker. 

Charles F. White. 



AUG 



CONTENTS. 



I. President's Address 5 

II. Report of Treasurer 13 

III. Report of Nominating Committee . . 14 

IV. Celebration of the Centennial of the Birth 

OF Abraham Lincoln ..... 15 

V, " Gouverneur Morris," by George S. Mann . 21 

VI. Charter of Corporation .... 41 

VII. Officers and Committees .... 42 

VIII. List of Members ...... 43 

IX. By-Laws 46 




FIRE STATION A, VILLAGE SQUARE 

BROOKLINE, MASS. 

Erected 1909 



BROOKLINE HISTORICAL SOCIETY. 



NINTH ANNUAL MEETING. 



The ninth annual meeting of the Brookhne His- 
torical Society was held in the G. A. R. Room, Town 
Hall, Brookline, Mass., on Wednesday, January 19, 
1910, at 8 p. m., in accordance with a notice mailed 
to every member. President Charles H. Stearns was 
in the chair. 

The records of the last annual and monthly meet- 
ings were read and the President then delivered his 
annual address. 

PRESIDENT'S ANNUAL ADDRESS. 

Members of the Brookline Historical Society: — 

Ladies and Gentlemen, — In beginning this, my first annual 
address as its President, it is meet that we should accord to 
my predecessor in office our thanks and praise for all he has 
done in the past, to promote the welfare of this Society and 
to endeavor to make it a success. It is well to remember 
all we owe to Captain Candage. Indeed, but for him, this 
Society would not have been, and in his old age and retire- 
ment, let us give him a hearty good word and earnest wishes 
for a happy year. 

In looking back over the past twelve months, I think we 
may reasonably congratulate ourselves ; and with the renewed 
good attendance and interest since the beginning of another 
active season, we certainly have reason to believe that there 
is warrant for our continued existence. 



The following have been the Papers presented during the 
year : — 

January 26. Address of the President, R. G. F. Candage. As this 
was his retiring address, he made it the occasion of a resume of some 
of the many changes, inventions and almost revolutions that have 
happened during his long life, and especially as it has affected this, our 
beloved town. 

February 12. This was a special meeting and called at this date to 
commemorate the one hundredth anniversary of the birthday of 
Abraham Lincoln. It is one of the regrets in the life of your president 
that he was unable to be present at this meeting, but his place was 
most ably filled by your vice-president, and you who had the good 
fortune to be present will, I am sure, bear witness to his eloquent 
words, and to the interesting reminiscences of our fellow-member, 
William J. Seaver. The other addresses, the readings and musical 
solos and the singing by the whole meeting were of a high order 
and were a most fitting commemoration of the noble man. The 
gathering was a large one. 

March 24. "The Royal House and Some of its People," by Miss 
Helen Wild of Medford. This was an interesting description and 
history of this fine old house and of some of its occupants, and was 
prepared and read by one who has been enthusiastic in its preserva- 
tion and partial restoration. 

April 21. "Personal Experiences in Confederate Prisons, 1861-62," 
by William Carver Bates of Newton. This was not a formal paper, 
but an exceedingly interesting talk about his experiences in the 
Rebellion, in Rebel prisons in and about New Orleans. 

May 19. "Diary of John Howe, a British Spy in 1776." Prepared 
by Miss Ellen Chase, and read by Mr. Charles F. White. This was an 
account of the trials and perplexities and narrow escapes of a spy who 
went over the roads between Boston and the towns of Worcester 
county in the early year of the Revolution. 

October 20. The first paper after the summer vacation. "From 
the Stage Coach to the Parlor Car," by Charles E. Mann of Maiden. 
Mr. Mann is secretary of the Board of Railroad Commissioners of 
Massachusetts, and he was most familiar with the great changes and 
improvements in railroad travel. His talk was informal and very 
entertaining. 

November 17. "The Evolution of a New England Home," by Frank 
Smith of Dedham. This paper had originally been prepared for the 
Dedham Historical Society, and some of his allusions were of a local 
character, but the paper was historically very happy with old asso- 
ciations, and might well have applied to Brookline as well as Dedham. 
December 15. "Memories of Forty Years of Teaching," by Miss 
Mary P. Frye of Brookline. Beginning with her first school in Boston 
in 1869, Miss Frye came to Brookline in 1870, and has taught here 
continuously until 1909. Her talk, for it was informal, was most 



amusing and entertaining, and her allusions to events and persons 
so well known to most of us, brought the past condition of things 
most vividly to her hearers. We shall hope to again hear from 
Miss Frye. 

And here I want to emphasize the fact that this is a 
BrookUne institution, and though we most cordially welcome 
speakers and friends from other towns, we should mainly 
depend upon ourselves for the instruction and benefits to be 
derived at our monthly meetings. We certainly have the 
talent and ability in our ranks to make these meetings profit- 
able; and your president would strongly urge the members 
to come forward and proffer their services in the preparation 
of papers, in which they may feel interested and which may 
interest others. 

The total membership in this Society January 26, 1909, 
was 173. There has been one resignation because of removal 
from the town, and four other resignations for various causes; 
and one new member has joined. Death has removed four 
from our ranks during the year, leaving the whole number of 
members December 31, 1909, 165. The deaths were: — 

James Rooney, died April 5. Aged 46 yrs. 

Dr. Tappan Eustis Francis, died April 20. Aged 85 yrs, 
6 mos. 20 dys. 

Frederick Beck, died October 2. Aged 91 yrs. 4 mos. 22 dys. 

George Sumner Mann, died October 27. Aged 74 yrs. 1 1 mos. 
2 dys. 



Mr. Rooney was born in Brookline, and had always lived 
here. He attended the public schools, and succeeded his 
father in business. He was not an active member in this 
Society, and for several years had been in poor health. He 
will be remembered for his polite and cheerful presence. 



Dr. Francis (who did not know Dr. Francis?) came to 
Brookline as a very young man, and has always been a large 
part of the town. During his active years he was probably 
the best known person in Brookline. He was a blessed 
exemplification of the Good Physician, and by his kind heart, 
his genial nature and proverbial flow of wit and humor, had 
endeared himself to all who knew him. His presence here will 



8 

be well remembered by those who attended our earlier meet- 
ings, and he always had a pleasant word of comment on the 
paper of the evening. He was a faithful friend of the old 
soldiers, and his memory will always be blessed by them as 
well as ourselves. 



Mr. Frederick Beck was formerly connected with the Boston 
banking house of Dupee, Beck and Sayles, but had lived in 
retirement for several years. He had lived for a long time in 
his pleasant home on Davis avenue, his grounds joining those 
of his old friend. Dr. Francis. It was a blessed Providence 
that these two neighbors for so many years here should be so 
soon re-united in the beyond. The fine old house so long 
occupied by Mr. Beck was built about 1840 by Mr. Isaac 
Thayer, and on what was then known as Washington place, 
and the garden extended to Washington street. Mr. Beck 
was a great reader, was for many years a member of the 
Thursday Club and had contributed many papers to that 
organization. 



Mr. Mann was a native of Petersham in this state. He 
had lived in Brookline for the past sixteen years, and was an 
early member of this Society. He was very much interested, 
and until his last sickness, a most punctual attendant at its 
meetings. He had contributed several papers, the last one 
on Gouverneur Morris a little more than a year ago. 



The recent destructive fire in what is now known as the 
David Hall Rice house, has brought this historic house into 
prominence. It was built in 1821 by Joseph Sewall a descend- 
ant of Chief Justice Sewall, and the grandfather of Mrs. 
Edward C. Cabot, who has recently deceased. Mr. Sewall 
was a partner in the firm of Sewall and Tappan, merchants of 
Boston, and Mr. John Tappan built what is now known as 
the Philbrick house about the same time, probably in the 
same year. Mr. Sewall lived in his house for ten or twelve 
years. This must have been a very retired, secluded spot. 
There was no house on what is now Walnut street, then known 
as the Sherburn road, between these two partners' homes, 
and the Sewall property took in all of what is now called the 



9 

Sewall district, extending to Jamaica Pond. There was a 
narrow lane extending from the pubHc road to the back end 
of the estate, and years after, during the occupancy of Mr. 
Hugh R. Kendall, this was the scene of many May-day parties 
and picnics. That part of Mr. Edward C. Cabot's land which 
has been suggested as a possible park by the town was known 
as Fairyland, and a most beautiful spot it was. The next 
occupant of the house was a family named Tilson, and one 
of the sons was a colonel in the Civil War. Deacon Lambert 
next lived here. He was quite prominent in one of the 
Boston churches and quite an interesting anecdote in con- 
nection with the deacon's occupancy was recently related 
to me. It seems that at one time during the preaching of 
that celebrated divine. Dr. William Ellery Channing, a Uni- 
tarian, Dr. Lyman Beecher, was sent to Boston from his home 
in Litchfield, Conn., to try to combat the effect of Dr. 
Channing's preaching, and he stayed for a while with his friend, 
Deacon Lambert. Now, as has been said, this house and 
Mr. Philbrick's were the only ones on that side of Walnut 
street. Each had quite a long approach from the road, and 
each had a great resemblance to the other. It happened 
that Deacon Lambert called one day on Mr. Philbrick on 
some business, and while they were talking in walked Dr. 
Beecher without the formality of knocking. The deacon 
looked surprised, but introduced Mr. Philbrick to the doctor, 
who nodded rather coolly to his host, and then took up a 
book and sat down to read. After the deacon had finished 
his business, he went to Dr. Beecher and said, "Doctor, do 
you know where you are?" The reply was, "Why in your 
house, of course," Imagine his surprise when he learned 
he was in the house of an entire stranger. 

Mr. Hugh R. Kendall was the next owner and occupant, 
and it was he who cleared the land and allowed the public to 
enjoy it. He was a retired Boston merchant, and quite wealthy 
in the estimation of those days. In the tax book of 1843, 
Mr. Kendall was taxed on 22% acres of land, and on $80,000 
personal estate. Since his day there have been a number of 
occupants, the house being used at one time as a home for 
orphans of naval officers. 



10 



The Philbrick house, after a few years' occupancy of Mr. 
Tappan, was next owned by a Mr. Ropes. He was a zealous 
orthodox, and there being no church of that faith in BrookUne 
he opened his parlors for services, which probably was the 
beginning of what is now the Harvard Church. Mr. Samuel 
Philbrick bought the place in 1829, and it has since been in 
that family. Mr. Philbrick was a good citizen, and withal 
an ardent member of the Anti-Slavery Society, and his house 
was well known in the days before the war as one of the 
stations of the "Underground Railroad." 



Another house, built by a brother of John Tappan, and 
probably about the same time, is the fine stone mansion 
occupied for many years by the Blake family. Mr. Lewis 
Tappan, soon after building, removed to New York, and there 
followed several occupants of the house. Mr. George Baty 
Blake bought the place about 1845, and it has since 
been in possession of the Blake family. Mr. Blake was the 
senior partner in the banking house of Blake Bros., and he 
had a large family, four sons and two daughters, all of whom 
have passed away, the widow of the youngest son now own- 
ing the place. The property has been added to and greatly 
improved of late years, making it one of the most beautiful 
country seats in the town, and situated as it is in the very 
centre of population, with its fine old trees and beautiful 
lawns and gardens, it is indeed a most restful spot. May it 
be many years before its lovely slopes are invaded by the 
ever increasing apartment houses. Another brother, Charles 
Tappan, lived in and owned at one time the John L. Gardner 
estate on Warren street, a pleasant description of which was 
given several years ago in Miss Julia Goddard's delightful 
paper. This family of Tappans were well-known wealthy 
Boston merchants, and were men of sterling character. A 
sister was the second wife of Dr. John Pierce, the beloved 
pastor of the First Parish. 

These three stone houses are types of a beautiful style of 
architecture, and give one the sense of largeness and hospi- 
tality, simple yet dignified, so different from the heterogeneous 
appearance of many of the newer houses. 



11 



The Devotion house has had a year's experience under 
the control of the Devotion House Association. By subscrip- 
tions from this Society, from the D. A. R. and D. R. Chapters, 
and from individuals and memberships, the house has been 
maintained and cared for by the Association. Put in admir- 
able order by the town, and the interior finish planned and 
carried out by Mr. Walter H. Kilham, the well-known archi- 
tect, it is a fine example of old-time architecture, and with 
the contributions and loans of furniture, books, pictures and 
relics of the olden time, it is well worthy of a visit. The 
house is open on two days of the week. The attendance 
has not been as large as was hoped for, but the visitors' register 
shows that they have come from a wide range of country. 
Recently several meetings of patriotic societies have been held 
there, and it is hoped that the advertisement thus given it will 
prompt a larger attendance during the coming summer. An 
old-fashioned garden, suggested and laid out by the lady 
members of the Committee of the Association, adds much 
to the appearance of the place. Situated as it is, with its 
beautiful front lawn and the noble maple on either side, it 
presents with its simplicity a notable contrast with the large 
modern schoolhouses, making with them a fine quadrangle. 

In some portions of our town the increase of buildings is 
most notable, particularly so in the growth of apartment 
houses. Much as we older residents may lament this, these 
houses evidently fill a want, though it is hard to imagine one 
of these suites a home. 

The new Public Library, so long talked of, is rapidly becom- 
ing a reality. The moving of the old building, while the 
business of the Library was in constant use, was one of the 
novelties of the past summer. 

During the past year the settlement of the long vexed 
question of transfers from the street cars in Village Square, 
has been settled and a shelter on either side of the tracks 
have been finished. The station has not been established 
long enough as yet to venture an opinion as to its desira- 
bility. 

The town has made a fine roadway of the village street 
with a brick pavement from the town line to the junction of 
Washington and Boylston street, and it is now to be hoped 



12 



that the owners of the dilapidated buildings below Pearl street 
may see their way to replace them with something that will 
be more attractive to people entering this, the beautiful town 
of Brookline. 

Your Society was represented at the winter meeting of the 
Bay State League at Roxbury by five of its members. Com- 
ing as it did on Saturday last, in the midst of the snow storm 
and blizzard, there was rather a small attendance, but the 
meeting made up in enthusiasm what it lacked in numbers. 
The subject was, "How a Local Society can Best Commemo- 
rate Noted Persons, Places or Events." Mr. James P. Monroe 
of the Lexington Historical Society told of what that town had 
done in the way of commemoration, and all who have visited 
that beautiful town and its venerated and venerable Clark- 
Hancock House will bear witness to what has been accomplished. 
Mr. John P. Reynolds, treasurer of the Paul Revere House 
Memorial Association, gave an exceedingly interesting account 
of the trials and tribulations attending the purchase and 
renovation of the Paul Revere House. They did not have 
the treasury of the town to draw from as we in our Devotion 
House, and it was a long, dragging persistency which finally 
conquered and preserved the old house. Mr. John E. Oilman 
of the Roxbury Historical Society, and at the same time a 
member of the Grand Army, laid special emphasis on the 
desirability, nay, the necessity, of a cordial understanding 
between the historical societies and the Grand Army Posts, 
whereby the former should eventually be the heir to the 
collections and relics of the latter, whenever, as it surely must 
be sooner or later, that in the course of nature, the Posts 
must cease to be. 

In this connection this Society may well congratulate itself 
on its pleasant meeting place. This ample, nay spacious 
room with the many relics of the Grand Army Post, its pic- 
tures and portraits are indeed inspiring to our meetings and 
make it, as I trust, for the mutual benefit to us and to the old 
soldiers. 

And now, fellow members, I wish you a happy and a pros- 
perous year, a wish which can only be fulfilled by a deter- 
mination on the part of all of us that we will make it so. 



13 
REPORT OF THE TREASURER. 



Edward W. Baker, Treasurer, 
In account with Brookline Historical Society. 
Balance on hand January 1, 1909: — 

Permanent fund $925 63 

Current fund 79 99 



$1,005 62 



Receipts to December 31, 1909: — 

Permanent fund $16 19 

Current fund 242 00 

$258 19 

Total balances and receipts $1,263 81 

Expenditures. 
January 1, 1909, to December 31, 1909:— 
From Current Fund. 

Printing Annual Report $103 50 

Printing Notices, etc 32 25 

Addressing Circulars and Notices . . . 

Postage 

"Lincoln Centennial" 

Electrotypes 

Photograph 

Framing pictures. 

Janitor service 

Bay State Historical League 

Carriage hire 

Subscription Devotion House Asso- 
ciation 75 00 

Total expenditures $258 45 

Balance January 1, 1910: — 

Permanent fund $941 82 

Current fund 63 54 

Total balances $1,005 36 

Edward W. Baker, Treasurer. 



5 


75 


11 


00 


9 


40 


8 


00 


2 


00 


4 


55 


1 


00 


4 


00 


2 


00 



I have examined the accounts of Edward W. Baker, Treasurer of the Brook- 
line Historical Society, and find the same correct, with proper vouchers for all 
payments. The bank books have been exhibited and verified. The balance in 
the Permanent Fund is $941.82 and in the Current Fund $63.54 as of January 
1, 1910 

January 19, 1910. CHARLES H. Stearns, Auditor. 



14 



REPORT OF THE NOMINATING COMMITTEE. 



Your committee appointed to nominate officers of the 
Brookline Historical Society for the coming year begs leave 
to report that it has attended to its duty and proposes the 
following candidates: — 

For Clerk. 
Charles F. White. 

For Treasurer. 
Edward W. Baker. 

For Trustees. 
Charles H. Stearns, 
Charles F. White, 
Edward W. Baker, 
William O. Comstock, 
Joseph McKey, 
Miss Julia Goddard, 
Mrs. Martha C. Kittredge. 

All of which is respectfully submitted. 

Charles F. Read, 
James Adams, 

Mrs. Susan Vining Griggs. 
Brookline, Mass., December 29, 1909. 

The report was accepted and it was voted to proceed to 
ballot. The ballot was taken and the candidates nominated 
were unanimously elected. 

Voted, to print the President's address, Treasurer's report, 
by-laws, lists of officers and members, and such papers as the 
Committee on Publications may select. 

Voted, to dissolve the meeting. 

Charles F. White, Clerk. 



15 



CELEBRATION OF THE CENTENNIAL OF THE 
BIRTH OF ABRAHAM LINCOLN. 

February 12, 1909. 

The Society celebrated the Lincoln Centenary with a special 
program in the Grand Army Room of the Town Hall on 
February 12, 1909, at 8 p. m. 

C. L. Chandler Post, G. A. R., Woman's Relief Corps, 
Johanna Aspinwall and Hannah Goddard Chapters, D. A. R., 
and Isaac Gardner Chapter, D. R.,and the BrookHne Thurs- 
day Club were the guests of the Historical Society. 

William O. Comstock, vice-president, who, in the absence 
of President Charles H. Stearns, had charge of the exercises, 
read Lincoln's sketch of his own life, and recited Lincoln's 
poem, "Memory." WilHam J. Seaver read a paper which 
follows on "Some Personal Impressions of Abraham Lincoln 
in 1856." Charles F. Read spoke on "Lincoln's Visits to 
Boston and Vicinity." Edward W. Baker read President 
Roosevelt's recently published "Appreciation of Lincoln." 
Miss M. T. Simpson read the Gettysburg address and recited 
Lowell's "Commemoration Ode," Walt Whitman's "My Cap- 
tain," and Bryant's "Death of Lincoln." Mrs. Marguerite A. 
Goodspeed sang the "Battle Hymn," "Old Blind Joe" and 
"When I'm Big I'll Be a Soldier." Mrs. Harriet L. Pierce 
was at the piano. A collection of Lincoln relics was on 
exhibition. 



SOME IMPRESSIONS OF ABRAHAM LINCOLN IN 1856. 
By William J. Seaver. 

Probably more has been written about Abraham Lincoln 
than of any other American citizen, and it may seem pre- 
sumptuous on my part to add anything to what has been 
said. I am afraid I shall say little that is new, but I cannot 
deny myself the opportunity of paying this small tribute to 
his memory. 

A little more than fifty years ago the signboards at every 
turn of the roads in the East seemed to read, "Go West, 



16 

young man." California gold fields were attracting thou- 
sands. Western farms were sought by many interested in 
agriculture. The forests of Michigan and Wisconsin resounded 
with the axes of the lumbermen from Maine. Young men 
engaged in mercantile pursuits were told that their business 
chances were much better in a country where cities were born 
every week. 

But beyond all these interests and allurements was that 
tide of immigration flowing toward Kansas, — devoted spirits 
who were determined that there should not be another slave 
state added to the Union. 

I became infected with the Western fever, and landed, as it 
happened = .in Springfield, IlHnois, — the home of Abraham Lin- 
coln, — then as far west as Dakota is today. (Some of my 
personal experiences there would make as good reading as 
Winston Churchill's novel "The Crisis," and be as entertain- 
ing.) Among other things I was told (because of the Anti- 
Slavery sentiment of New England) that it would be just as 
well not to say that I was from Massachusetts, and especially 
from Boston. The southern half of Illinois was settled by 
many Tenneseeans and Kentuckians who were prejudiced 
against this section of the country. 

But I am to speak of Abraham Lincoln. That I knew him 
in 1856-7 has been more than a pleasant recollection with me 
for over half a century. I was not old enough to be called 
his friend, but I love to feel that I had more than a passing 
acquaintance with him during those two years. 

The first time I saw him he was sitting on the grass in front 
of his modest home ; three or four small children were climbing 
over his chair and running about him, which would not have 
been encouraged, perhaps, by a person less fond of little 
children. I speak of this to show his loving nature. He was 
paying but little attention to their antics, however. There 
was a far-away look in his eyes as if his thoughts were else- 
where. Perhaps even then he had visions of what might be 
possible and probable, when the conflict of argument over the 
great question of that day should be followed by the clash of 
arms — for there were many who predicted, five years before the 
Civil War, that there would be bloodshed before the issue was 
settled. 



17 



Mr. Lincoln's figure, tall and ungainly, was dressed in a 
ready-made suit of dark cloth, all too short in the arms and 
legs. He wore a round plush cap without any visor, and his 
necktie of black silk was carelessly tied. His personal appear- 
ance would not impress a boy from an eastern city, who was 
familiar with the figures of Charles Sumner, Edward Everett 
and other prominent men of New England, that he was a 
great man. I was pleased with his speech, his kindly smile; 
he impressed me with his sincerity; but that his was the 
master mind that should be so influential in public affairs in 
the years to follow never entered my mind any more than 
that later he was to be the savior of his country. Neither was 
he aware of his natural gifts, or conscious that he possessed 
those qualities that made him a statesman outranking his 
contemporaries . 

I took him to be a fairly good lawyer with a small practice, 
and a strong liking for politics. He was extremely modest; 
absolutely fair and thoroughly honest and unselfish ; willing 
at all times to waive his claims for political place and position 
for the benefit of others and the cause, his great desire, to 
use his own words, being "to do what was right and make 
himself useful." 

At times he was very sober, but often, and even on serious 
matters, his opinion was expressed in a lighter vein. He was 
practical in his advice, but he had moods of deep sentiment. 
Pathos and humor are blood relations. Where will you find 
a finer or more beautiful expression of this characteristic 
than in the following lines : — 

"The mystic clouds of memory stretching from every battle- 
field and patriot grave to every living heart and hearthstone, 
all over this broad land, will yet swell the chorus of the Union, 
when again touched, as surely it will be, by the better angels 
of our nature." 

At the time I knew him — in 1856 — he had not become 
prominent in national affairs. We can hardly reaHze the stu- 
pendous, wonderful work he was to perform in the short 
period of the nine years which followed. It does not seem 
possible that an inexperienced mind and human hands could 
have accomplished it unaided and alone. Today I do not 
seem to be listening to the story of the man. I lose sight of 



18 



the tall, ungainly figure, the rugged features, and through 
"the mystic clouds of memory" I see a mighty, luminous 
form — a benign spirit controlled and directed by an infinite 
power for a purpose beneficent to this country, the whole 
world, and for all time. 

I was employed in a general store and bank in Springfield 
where there were two or three boys from Massachusetts. Mr. 
Lincoln was on very intimate terms with our employer, and 
he liked to talk with us. We had many opportunities of 
enjoying his genial conversation. My fellow clerks were 
criticising a lady patron; they remarked that she was so 
unsophisticated that she was lacking in tact, although she 
had many other good qualities. Mr. Lincoln, always ready 
to excuse the failings of others, said, "That reminds me of a 
girl who wasn't much of a dancer. Her friends said that what 
she lacked in dancing she made up in turning round." Those 
who are familiar with the old-fashioned cotillion will appre- 
ciate the story. He had a way of illustrating his side of an 
argument with a funny story — not always original, but always 
to the point; the laugh would be on you, and, as the boys 
say, you would take a back seat. Mr. Lincoln was free with 
good advice to young men, for he called himself an old man 
before he was 47, and felt privileged to give it. I remember 
at one time, in answer to something I had said, he replied in a 
common expression of the day, "You'll know more when the 
steamer gets in," and as the Irishman said, "Begorra, I did." 
Mr. Lincoln was not mistaken. Frequently since then I have 
awaited the arrival of the steamer. 

The question practically before the people in 1856 was, 
"Has the United States government the light to determine 
what the status of a new state shall be — Slave or Free?" All 
this is a matter of history, however, and you are familiar with 
it. The excitement over the question was intense — much 
more so in the West than in the East. Through Springfield, 
Mr. Lincoln's home, immigrant trains from the South were 
passing almost daily to the disputed territory of bleeding 
Kansas, — I can see them now with their huge covered wagons, 
and hear the drum and fife that often headed the caravan, — 
and there was a contingent from the North traveling in the 
same direction. 



19 



In Springfield also were recruited a corps of so-called govern- 
ment inspector's deputies, whose business it was to super- 
vise, or rather control, the elections that were to take place 
in that territory. All this was going on under Mr. Lincoln's 
immediate observation. 

Mr. Douglass, on the stump, was drawing large audiences, 
who were pleased with the plausible story of "Squatter Sov- 
ereignty," and Mr. Lincoln attracted equally large numbers 
in his reply. 

On one of these occasions I heard Mr. Douglass during the 
afternoon in a grove outside of the city. I was astonished at 
the attendance. Railroads were few in number in those 
days and the country sparsely settled, but there were almost 
thousands where I expected to see only hundreds. The ox 
wagon and mule team brought whole families, including chil- 
dren, from long distances, for miles and miles around. They 
came prepared to stay over night, with their supplies of food 
and the usual amount of corn, whiskey and quinine. Lincoln 
was to reply to Mr. Douglass in the evening from the State 
House, which stood in a square in the centre of the city. Dele- 
gations were to arrive from Chicago and elsewhere up the 
State, and it was a gala time. The event appealed to me at 
once. 

I was much pleased with Mr. Douglass, his manner, person 
and finished oratory; but I could not help thinking that he, 
born in Vermont, brought up in his youth surrounded by 
the influences of New England, was expressing himself antago- 
nistic to the sentiments that prevailed in his old home; while 
his opponent, Abraham Lincoln, born in a slave-holding state, 
of rough exterior, educated more by his experiences than 
books, whose thought and ideas of right and wrong were 
the children of a mind developed in the loneliness of the forest 
and in his communion with nature, stood boldly as the cham- 
pion of freedom and justice. 

Mr. Lincoln gave his reply to Mr. Douglass's address from 
the steps of the State House. I had climbed into a window 
seat just behind, and at one side of him. The Chicago dele- 
gation had not arrived — -the train was behind time; it carried 
a platform car in the rear on which they had mounted a small 
field piece which saluted the several stations they passed on 



20 

the Chicago & Alton Railroad. The crowd was awaiting 
anxiously its arrival. Presently we heard it coming, and 
soon, to the soul-stirring music of a brass band, the delegation 
came round the corner. 

Mr. Lincoln's remarks on this occasion were of the character 
of a stump speech; they were offhand, informal, but logical 
and conclusive. I do not know that they were ever published, 
but one little bit has been in my mind ever since. "The 
Honorable Senator asks me if I intend to go across the river 
and fire stones at their institutions [meaning the Southern 
States]. I tell the Honorable Senator, No, but I mean to 
stand on this side of the river and fire as many stones as I 
like." As commander of the army of the United States he 
was to do more than this later. He was to use an armed force, 
bullets instead of stones. And no commander in the history 
of the world ever had so great or so devoted an army, and 
never so valiant an enemy. No commander ever took more 
interest, down to the smallest details of the service, and gave 
it more time and labor, or watched its progress with such tire- 
less zeal. From consultations with his cabinet to the tele- 
graph office, in message, speech, correspondence and interview 
through four long years he left a most remarkable record of 
devotion and service to his country. "It was said of him by 
an English paper after his death that he never attempted 
invective, and nothing elicited from him impatience or resent- 
ment. Creditable to his head and heart was the entire 
absence of violence, either of language or opinion." 

Some men are so arbitrary, because of success, or they are 
so blind with prejudice and passion that they cannot excuse 
the mistakes or be charitable for the short-comings of others, 
but Abraham Lincoln's character and magnanimity gave him 
clearer, broader vision. He rose to the noblest heights of 
patriotism, duty and good-will. Like a prophet he saw that 
the future of his country depended on the harmony of all its 
parts. And when the war was over, the spirit that animated 
these immortal words, "With maUce toward none, with 
charity for all," was almost divine. 

And today a grateful, united country expresses its love and 
appreciation for the greatest American — Abraham Lincoln. 




GEORGE SUMXER MANN 



21 



GOUVERNEUR MORRIS. 



[A paper read before the Brookline Historical Society November 
25, 1908, by George S. Mann.] 



Not only at the present time, but in the past, history has 
recorded the deeds of political actors and statesmen a number 
of whom in our own country, especially in provincial and in 
colonial times, have made their impress upon us by their 
strenuousness, oddity and boldness of action — such as "John 
Randolph of Roanoke," for an extreme example. 

Could the glaring inconsistencies and illogical deeds re- 
corded of some of these historical characters be erased from 
the pages of history how much more it would add to their 
reputation as statesmen. But as this cannot be done it may 
be of some consolation to know that in this world of transitory 
existence men are not altogether perfect. Nevertheless, in 
our enlightened age we have more mature and keener intellects 
than in ye olden time when many of the inhabitants are said 
to have been in such a low state of intelligence as to be 
accounted by an early historian well-nigh "social animals." 

In the formation of our government out of the old colonial 
system we were extremely fortunate in having many able and 
patriotic statesmen whose difficult task was to harmonize 
the various and conflicting interests represented by the 
thirteen independent states and consolidate them into a 
general government, by a legal compact known as our 
Federal Constitution. 

To be a little more definite in my subject-matter, I will 
name Gouverneur Morris, as my text, an American citizen, 
who took an active part in the affairs of government of that 
period. At the outset let me say that in a paper of thirty 
or forty minutes, one can mention only a few of the im- 
portant events, and these briefly, in the strenuous life of this 
statesman whose unique and somewhat erratic career covered 
a period of forty-five years. 

Gouverneur Morris was bom in the family's manor-house at 
Morrisania, New York, January 31, 1752, and on the estate 
where his forefathers had dwelt for three generations. By 



22 



birth he was an aristocrat. His great-grandfather, Richard 
Morris, who had served under Cromwell, came to the lower 
Hudson and settled in Westchester County, bordering on 
Haerlem River, where he purchased a vast estate, a manorial 
grant, known more than two hundred years ago by its present 
designation, "Morrisania" — then almost wholly a natural 
forest — now the upper part of New York City. Lewis 
Morris, son of the original proprietor, was left an orphan. 
He was an impetuous youth and wandered to the West Indies, 
but returned and took an active part in the colonial ad- 
ministration. He became Chief Justice of New York and 
died while governor of New Jersey. This was the grand- 
father of Gouvemeur Morris. Lewis Morris, Jr (c^on of 
Gouvemeur's grandfather) was also in public life. His 
brother, Robert Hunter Morris, was for a time governor of 
Pennsylvania. "In my Journey to Boston this year 1754," 
writes Franklin, "I met at New York with our new Governor, 
Mr. Morris, just arrived there from England, with whom 
I had been before intimately acquainted." He was called 
a disputatious official. The fourth son of his elder brother 
Lewis is the subject of this paper. Gouvemeur's father 
died early, having directed in his will that his son Gou- 
verneur "should have the best education that is to be had 
in England or America." Both the father and grandfather 
of Gouverneur for a period had occupied the bench. 

The Morrises had the reputation of being of restless dis- 
positions, of strong intellects, eccentric and erratic tempers. 
Young Gouverneur inherited also many of the vivacious 
traits of the French, for his mother was one of the Huguenot 
Gouverneurs who settled in New York after the revocation 
of the Edict of Nantes. He was a boy of active parts and fond 
of out-door sports. He w^as early put to school in the family 
of a French teacher at New Rochelle, where he also took 
a rapid course of instruction in the classics. The church 
services there being often held in French he learned to speak 
and write that language nearly as well as he could in English. 

From thence he entered King's College (now Columbia), 
where we find him a graduate at the early age of sixteen. 
It is said that Latin and mathematics were his favorite studies. 
He must have profited by the course, for his Commencement 



23 

exercise on "Wit and Beauty" and his subsequent "Master 
of Arts" theme on "Love" were treated with considerable 
ingenuity and were enthusiastically applauded by the young 
ladies, many of whom, no doubt, were attracted to him, for 
he was a tall, handsome young man with finely cut features, 
and graceful in his bearing. He studied law with a man 
of celebrity in the Colony, William Smith, a Chief Justice, 
and author of the History of the Province. While a student 
young Morris attracted some attention by his writings against 
a financial project of the Assembly, and before he was twenty 
was a full-fledged Attorney at Law. He was licensed to 
practise in the Courts in 1771, tho' I failed to find evidence 
that he made any considerable use of his profession at the 
New York bar thus early. Among the very few cases he 
tried was one concerning a contested election, in which he 
was pitted against John Jay. About this time, in a letter 
to his friend Judge William Smith, asking advice about 
visiting Europe, he says, "I desire this trip to form my manners 
and address by the example of the truly polite, to rub off 
in the gay circle a few of the many barbarisms which charac- 
terize a provincial education." He obeyed the injunction 
of his old preceptor, however, who said to him, "Imitate your 
grandfather who stayed in America and prospered rather 
than spend a fortune abroad in imitation of one of your 
uncles." He now turned his attention to the affairs in the 
Colony which were much unsettled. 

Early development and responsibility were marked traits 
of our Revolutionary worthies. The habit of forming opinions 
and resolutely maintaining them was a characteristic of 
the Morris family. There was a great opportunity for the 
exercise of this kind of talent in New York, where opposition 
to the decrees of the British Parliament, together with the 
popular local element of agitation, was in conflict with the 
staid laws of the Mother Country. Morris and Jay stood side 
by side in maintainance of the Colonial cause. Morris's skill 
in debate was of great value in the local gatherings. When 
the State was rapidly resolving itself into open revolt, in a 
speech of eloquence and sound logic he maintained and 
defended the independence of the American Colonies. Before 
this, and even during his minority, he had begun to take 



24 



interest in public affairs. In consequence of the French 
and Indian wars, the Colony was in debt. A bill was before 
the New York Assembly to provide for this by raising money 
by the issue of interest-bearing bills of credit. Morris attacked 
this bill with great vehemence, opposing any issue of paper 
money which would, he argued, end in catastrophy and 
bankruptcy; but later on, as we shall see, he took a different 
view of this subject. 

The Colonial Government of New York at this period was 
a sort of an aristocratic republic, its constitution similar to 
that of England. The power was vested in the hands of the 
wealthy land-holders, such as the Livingstons, Van Rensse- 
laers, Schuylers, Van Cortlandts, Jays, Ludlows, Beekmans, 
Roosevelts, Morrises and others. For more than a century 
these magnates held political sway, save by contests between 
themselves, or with the royal Governor. Some of these rich 
landowners held black slaves, and lived in state and great 
comfort in roomy manor-houses with wainscotted walls, and 
enormous fireplaces, encompassed by well-kept gardens, 
intermingled by box hedges and formal-shaped flower beds. 
Certain representatives of these families remained loyal 
to England. Staats Long Morris, Gouvemeur's elder brother, 
remained a royalist and rose to be a Major General in the 
British Army, and married the Duchess of Gordon. 

The rebellious sentiment and opposition to the dictum 
of Great Britain in New York and New Jersey was somewhat 
behind the more radical leaders of New-England. Indeed, 
the battles of Lexington, Concord and even Bunker Hill, 
had been fought before the New Yorkers became thoroughly 
aroused. The sturdy men of New York, though slow at first, 
were far sighted enough to see the true value of the struggle 
and most of them joined the patriots. They were men of a 
high ideal of freedom, and too fond of liberty to be overtaxed 
and arbitrarily ruled by a nation three thousand miles away. 
Morris, who belonged to the ruling Episcopalian Church, 
was at first slow in siding with the patriots. The semi-secret 
society of the "Sons of Liberty" originating among the 
merchants, which at times took the form of mob-law, he 
disliked, and argued for compromise, but at length, when he 
saw no hope of reconciliation, and the British ministry 



25 



growing more imperious, and the Colonies more defiant, he 
cast in his lot with the patriots. Once in, he was not the 
kind of a man to look back, or even waver. 

Like the great Washington at this crisis, Morris fully believed 
that a lasting separation from the Mother Country was now 
inevitable. In April, 1775, the last Colonial legislature in New 
York adjourned for all time and in its place various committees 
were formed and met in convention to elect delegates to the 
Continental Congress, and also to the Provincial Congress, 
of which there were eighty-one delegates, including Gouverneur 
Morris from the County of Westchester. Morris said in 1776, 
"Experience will teach the British powers that an American 
war will be tedious, expensive, uncertain and ruinous." 
He said, "Why should we hesitate? Have you the least hope 
in treaty? Can you trust in the acts of Parliament? No, 
they come from the king. We have no business with the 
king. He has officially made himself a party in the dispute 
against us. Trust crocodiles, trust the hungry wolf in your 
flock, or a rattlesnake in your bosom. But trust the king, 
his ministers, or his commissioners is madness in the extreme." 
The war having fully commenced he wrote to his mother from 
the convention at Fishkill thus : "What may be the event of the 
present war it is not in man to determine, but he who dies in 
defence of the injured rights of mankind is happier than his 
conqueror or more beloved by mankind." 

The constitution of New York, which was finally adopted, 
and which continued the basis of the law of the State till 
1821, owed much to the labors of Morris. He was constantly 
employed in the various duties of semi-civil and semi-military 
character, in negotiations with the officers of the army, and 
visiting General Schuyler with whom he was in full sympathy. 
The following year the New York convention made him a 
member of the Congress at Philadelphia, and almost immedi- 
ately he visited Washington at his camp at Valley Forge, 
where the General's half-starved and shoeless army were 
quartered. Morris took up his residence there for the winter. 
The intimate friendship formed with Washington and the 
influence of the latter helped Morris in his duties in the 
Congress at Philadelphia. The two years which he passed 
in Congress included the mission of Franklin to Paris. This 



26 

called forth important services from Morris in the foreign 
negotiations leading to the treaty of peace. One of the first 
steps in this Congress was to provide means of raising funds. 
A committee was chosen, of which Morris was a member, 
and he prepared and drew up the report. It was found 
impossible to raise the amount needed by direct taxation. In 
his report in behalf of the committee he recommended an issue 
of paper money, that the Continental Congress should name 
the whole sum needed, and apportion the several shares to 
the different colonies, each being bound to discharge its own 
allotted part, and all together to be liable to whatever any 
allotted Colony was unable to pay. It must have been rather 
hard for Morris, a metal currency man, to have been obliged 
to acquiesce in the adoption of paper money. However, at 
this desperate state of affairs, it was a necessity, he plainly 
saw. This plan worked well at the time and strengthened 
the bond of union between the colonies. Morris's mind had 
now become thoroughly national, and his voice was often 
heard in Congress, being one of the leaders, and no doubt 
one of the best orators in that body. He took a conspicuous 
part in the religious controversey of the time also, but the 
limit of this paper forbids only a mere mention of this. When 
General Washington was on his way to take command of 
the army around Boston he passed through New York the 
same day royal Governor Tryon arrived by sea, and the 
authorities were in a quandary how to treat two such officials. 
Finally it was agreed to send a guard of honor to attend each. 
Montgomery and Morris, as delegates from the Assembly, re- 
ceived Washington, and brought him before that body, who 
addressed him cordially, but ended in this noteworthy 
phrase: "When the contest should be decided by an accommo- 
dation with the Mother Country, he should deliver up the 
important trust that had been confided to his hands." "This," 
says one author, "gives us the key to the situation." Even the 
patriots of the Colony, at that time, could not realize that 
there was no hope of an "accommodation." Washington, 
the far-sighted statesman, urged the New Yorkers to take a 
bolder stand, and presently they did. As the Declaration of 
Independence had been ratified by most of the colonies, the 
State Constitution organized, and the die was cast. The 



27 

third Provincial Congress of New York came together and 
before the close of its sessions, on account of marauding 
parties, was obliged to adjourn to White Plains, where they 
acted on the Declaration of Independence, and lay the 
foundation of a new State Government. Morris at this time 
was a zealous worker, and the acknowledged head of the 
patriotic party in New York. In one of his speeches he pre- 
dicted that if we gained our liberties, "all nations would 
resort hither as an asylum from oppression." This has 
literally proved true, and, no doubt, to our great disadvantage, 
by the injudicious law of giving the vote to a vast multitude 
of persons without a property qualification. About this time 
the Provincial Congress changed its name to that of "The 
Convention of the Representatives of the State of New 
York." Just previous to this Morris had been sent to the 
Continental Congress in Philadelphia on complaint that the 
New England troops were paid more than those from other 
colonies. This Morris got remedied and returned to his own 
State in triumph after a week's absence. 

The constitutional convention of New York led a checkered 
existence. The members, pursued by the victorious British 
from town to town, at times resolved themselves into a 
committee of safety with arms by their side in self -protection. 
The most important duties of this Convention were in charge 
of two committees. Of the first, was to draft a plan for 
the Constitution. Morris, Jay and Livingston were the three 
leading members. Of the second, was to devise means for 
the estabHshment of a State fund. Of this committee Morris 
was chairman. He was also chairman of a committee to look 
after the Tories, and prevent them from aiding the British. 
This was an unwelcome task, for many of his relatives, in- 
cluding his elder brother, were staunch Loyalists. The family 
mansion, where his mother lived, was within the British lines. 
About this time one of his sisters died, and in a letter to his 
mother were marks of deep feehng. The letter closes by 
sending love to "such as deserve it, the number," he adds, 
"are not great." Among the questions that came up in the 
Convention was the abolition of domestic slavery. Morris 
and Jay strenuously advocated this, but their fellow members 
in opposition outnumbered them, and the cause was postponed. 



28 



As soon as the Constitution was adopted, a committee, headed 
by Morris, Jay and Livingston, was appointed to organize 
the new government. The courts of justice were formed 
and put in running order. A council of safety of fifteen 
members, Morris being one, was estabHshed to act as the 
provincial government until the new Legislature should 
convene. An election for Governor was held and George 
Clinton was chosen. At this juncture of aflEairs Burgoyne 
with his army was approaching from Canada through the 
northern part of the state, causing the wildest excitement. 
The council of safety was at its wit's end to know how to act, 
but finally sent a committee of two, Morris being one, to 
General Schuyler, the commander-in-chief. Morris outlined a 
plan for the army in part as follows: "Harass the British 
in every way without risking a stand-up fight and to lay 
waste the country through which the enemy were to pass so as 
to render it impossible for an army to subsist." You all know 
the story how the New England members of Congress, always 
jealous of New York, took advantage of General Schuyler's 
caution and had him replaced by Gates, who subsequently 
coveted Washington's position in the army. Morris was very 
angry at this treatment of Schuyler, but nevertheless did all 
in his power to strengthen Gates, and predicted his success. In 
a letter to Schuyler, dated September 18, 1777, Morris praised 
him for the way he behaved and roughly commented on Gates's 
littleness of spirit. It appears at first, the leaders in New 
England, like Samuel Adams and John Hancock, did noble 
service, but later on they hampered nearly as much as they 
helped the patriot cause. Morris stood by Washington nobly, 
and did him great service on nearly all of his measures he 
wanted put through; in fact, Washington chose Morris as his 
confidential agent to bring favorably before Congress a 
matter in which he did not consider politic to write about; 
viz., to stop giving admission to the service foreign officers 
who were clamoring to be appointed. General Lafayette and 
one or two others, of course, were an exception. In 1778 the 
British sent over commissioners, headed by Lord Carlisle, 
to treat with us. They had propositions called "Lord North 
conciliatory bills," two in number — the first giving up the 
right of taxation, the second authorizing the commissioners 



29 

to treat with the revolted colonies in all questions of dispute. 
This was done in fear of an American alliance with France. 
Two days after the bills were received Morris drew up and 
presented his report, which was at once adopted by Congress. 
The tenor of this report was that the indispensable prelimi- 
naries to any treaty would have to be the withdrawal ot all 
the British fleets and armies, and the acknowledgment of the 
independence of the colonial states. This decisive step 
was taken when the colonies were without any allies, but only 
a few days afterwards messengers came to Congress with 
copies of the treaty with France, which was immediately 
ratified. Again, Morris was appointed chairman of a com- 
mittee to prepare an address on this subject to go before 
the American people. 

Shortly afterwards he drew up, on behalf of Congress, a 
sketch of the proceedings of the British commissioners, under 
the title of "Observations on the American Revolution." 
He was one of the committee to receive M. Gerard, the new 
French minister, and upon this he was selected by Congress 
to draft the instructions to be sent to Franklin, the American 
minister at the French Court. Morris was instrumental in 
having the famous Thomas Paine removed from the secre- 
taryship of the Committee of Foreign Affairs for his venomous 
attack on Silas Deane and the French Court. 

He had to deal also with an irritating matter affecting 
the State of New York. This was the dispute about the 
boundary between the latter State and Vermont in which 
Clinton, the politician, took an active part. Regarding 
the western boundary of the State, Jay was for extending it 
as far west as possible. Morris, not so far sighted, did not 
agree with him, saying, "A territory we cannot occupy, a 
navigation we cannot enjoy, not worth quarrelling about." 
In 1779 Morris was defeated for Congress and about this time 
took up his abode in Philadelphia. In 1780 he pubhshed a 
series of Essays in the "Pennsylvania Packet" reviewing 
the state of the national finances, which gave proof of his 
abihty in that line, and probably in consequence of this, 
through his friend and namesake, Robert Morris, received the 
appointment of his assistant, "Minister of Finance," at an 
annual salary of $1,850, which lasted three and one-quarter 



30 

years. The report of 1782, to which Jefferson subsequently 
was indebted, formulating a decimal system of notation for 
the national coinage, was prepared by him. 

Morris, good-looking, well dressed, a wit among men and 
a beau among the ladies, drove about the streets of Phila- 
delphia in a phaeton with a pair of small spirited horses. 
One day his horses took fright, threw him out and broke 
his leg, the bone so badly shattered it had to be amputated, 
and ever after wore a wooden stick, as many of his pictures will 
show. This loss of limb did not prevent him from mixing in 
society, of which he was very fond. The death of Morris's 
mother in 1786 threw the family residence at Morrisania, 
which had been cut off by the enemy during the war, into 
the hands of his elder brother, a British officer residing 
abroad (already alluded to), from whom he now purchased 
the estate. Soon after peace was declared each colony set 
up for itself, and for four or five years had no settled policy 
or credit. We refused to pay our debts, or our army. Mob 
violence flourished, notably "Shays' Rebellion" in New 
England and the "Whiskey Insurrection" in western Penn- 
sylvania. Our statesmen saw the absolute necessity of a 
National Union. Morris, then a delegate from Pennsylvania, 
was one of the great leaders of this movement, and made the 
final draft by his own pen of our Federal Constitution. Wash- 
ington, Hamilton and Morris advocated a strong National 
Government. Patrick Henry and most of the Southern 
statesmen were zealous defenders of "States' Rights." Henry 
said in his Virginia speech, "The American spirit, assisted 
by the ropes and chains of consolidation, is about to convert 
this country into a powerful and mighty empire." Morris, 
to his credit, was not a full believer in free suffrage. He said, 
"to give votes to people who have no property, they will sell 
them to the rich." In pursuance of this theory, he brought 
forward a plan, the chief feature was for an aristocratic Senate, 
and a democratic House, which would hold each other in 
check. He wished to have the president hold office during 
good behavior. The year after these labors Morris gratified 
a long-cherished desire of visiting Europe, and after a stormy 
passage of forty days arrived in France, and reached Paris 
February 3, 1789, in time to study the opening scenes of the 



31 

French Revolution. He remained there and in other parts of 
the Continent many years and kept a diary of the leading 
events. He found Jefferson installed as American Minister, 
planning and consulting in affairs, and was very handsomely 
received by Lafayette. Morris's aim was to study the character 
of the French, and he did so very closely. He was at once 
admitted to the highest social and political circles. Of Necker 
he says, after a glance at his counting-house manner and his 
embroidered velvet costume, "If he is really a very great man 
I am deceived." He disposes of Talleyrand, of whom he saw 
much, in a very few words. "Sly, cool, cunning, ambitious, 
maHcious." On the fourth of July, 1789, dining with Jefferson 
and a large party of Americans, he urged Jefferson to per- 
severe if possible in advocating some constitutional authority 
to the body of Nobles, as the only means of preserving the 
only liberty for the people of France, and soon after he gave 
the same advice to Lafayette, who appeared to be hostile 
to his ideas, and the Frenchman's wife still more so. Morris 
was always wont to freely give advice in all political matters. 
He was at the opening of the States General in May at Ver- 
sailles, and the following July word was sent him that the 
Bastile had been taken. A few days later, walking in the 
Palais Royal, he saw the head of Minister Foulon on a pike, 
his body dragged naked on the earth. "Gracious God," he 
exclaimed, "what a people." April first of the following 
year Mirabeau died. Morris witnessed his funeral, which 
was attended by more than a hundred thousand persons. 
He says, "Vices both degrading and detestable marked this 
extraordinary being." In his studies of the French people 
he has left on record this: "There are men and women who 
are greatly and eminently virtuous, I have the pleasure to 
number many in my own acquaintances, but they stand 
forward from a background deeply and darkly shaded." 
In a letter to Washington he called the nation "a kind of 
political colic." While in Paris he corresponded with Paul 
Jones, aiding him to go into the Russian service, as he ex- 
pected soon there would be warm work on the Baltic, and 
in the same letter advised him not to visit Paris. One of 
Morris's services to Washington was to procure him a gold 
watch. Washington's order was "not for a small, trifling. 



32 



nor a finical, ornamental one, but a watch well executed 
in point of workmanship, large and flat, with a plain, hand- 
some key." Morris purchased the watch with two copper 
keys, and one golden one, including a box containing a spare 
spring and glasses, and sent them to him by Jefferson. 

Another service to the Father of his Country was this order, 
"Go to M. Houdon's (the sculptor), he has been waiting for 
me a long time." And Morris says, "I stand for the statue 
of General Washington, being a humble employment of a 
manikin." It is said that Morris resembled the great Vir- 
ginian in looks more than any other American statesman of 
his time. Among the famous ladies of the salons where 
Morris often visited was Madame de Stael, who amused him, 
though in his diary he says that he never in his life saw such 
exuberant vanity as she displayed about her father Necker. 
Morris often met Madame de Flahaut at her salon. Once, when 
dining with Morris and Talleyrand, she told them in perfect 
good faith that if the latter was made minister "they must 
be sure to make a million for her." It was a coarse age. 
Morris says that he often met the fair sex at their toilets, 
but adds, "their operations at this task were carried on with 
an entire and astonishing regard to modesty." In the spring 
of 1790 Morris went to London, in obedience to a letter re- 
ceived from Washington appointing him private agent to the 
British Government, to see if he could induce them to strictly 
carry out the conditions of the treaty of peace previously 
made between Great Britain and the American colonies. 
Although Morris spent nearly a year in London he failed to 
accomplish anything. "The very name of America," said the 
king, "was hateful" to him. Here at home Morris's enemies 
blamed him for his failure there. They thought, and with 
more or less reason, that his haughty manner and proud 
bearing made him unpopular with the king and his minister. 
Probably a greater reason for his failure at the English Court 
was his intimacy with the French minister stationed there, 
M. de la Luzerne, and other French leaders whom the English 
disliked and were suspicious of. On leaving London he made 
a trip through the Netherlands, and up the Rhine. By the 
end of November we find him back again in Paris, but was 
soon called back to London, making a number of trips between 



33 



there and Paris during the year 1901 looking after his own 
business affairs. At this time he might be properly called 
a speculator. He engaged in different schemes of a business 
nature, and is said to have made a great deal of money. 
He shipped tobacco from Virginia. He contracted to deliver 
Necker 20,000 bbls. of flour for the relief of Paris, wherein he 
lost heavily. Another of his projects was on behalf of a 
syndicate, where he endeavored to purchase the American 
debts to France, thinking they could be bought low and then 
get full pay in America, but I believe this project came to 
naught. 

Morris was fond of the theatre, and enjoyed himself to 
the full, especially when in company of the Parisian ladies 
of quality. He thus describes one of the characters at the 
Opera: "One girl by the name of Sarenser, very handsome, 
but next door to an idiot as to her intelligence, appeared in a 
ballet in a dress, designed at her bidding, to be more indecent 
than nakedness." 

The priesthood he very much disliked and kept clear of 
them. The great church leader Maury, Morris said looked 
"like a downright scoundrel." He drafted many papers 
for the French Ministry and one for the King w^hich he liked, 
but his ministers prevented him from using it. In the spring 
of 1792 his credentials arrived as minister at the French 
Court. At the same time Washington sent him a word of 
warning, admonishing him not to let his brilliant imagination 
get the better of his cool judgment. Morris took the letter 
in good part and profited by it as far as lay in his nature. 
In the desperate state of affairs in Paris at this time, Morris 
had much sympathy for the King and Queen and tried to 
get them out of the city by a number of plans, but of no 
avail. One of the plans the King said he regretted his advice 
was not taken, and at the same time asked him if he would 
not take charge of the royal papers and money. Morris de- 
clined to take the papers, but consented to take charge of 
the money, amounting to about seven hundred and fifty 
thousand livres, which was paid out in living and bribing 
the men who stood in the way of the escape. The King 
remained in the city and the 10th of August the Swiss guard 
was slaughtered, and the whole scheme of escape at an end. 



34 

The King on the scaffold prayed that his deluded people 
might be benefited by his death. 

In 1796 Morris accounted for the expenditures to the 
dead King's daughter, and turned over to her the remainder, 
which was one hundred and forty-seven pounds. It appears 
that Morris was the only foreign minister who stayed in Paris 
during the reign of terror. It was an extremely dangerous 
position, but he faced the difficulties with unwonted courage. 
He wrote home that he could not tell "whether the King 
would live through the storm; for it blew hard." The horror 
of the mob was terrible. The shelter of Morris's house and 
flag was constantly sought. The old Count d'Estaing, and 
others of note who fought side by side with us in our war 
of independence, he sheltered in his own house. Morris said, 
"The vilest criminals swarmed in the streets, and amused 
themselves by tearing the earrings from w^omen's ears and 
snatching away their watches." Morris befriended Lafayette 
out of his own purse, w^hen in prison and in want; besides he 
had the sum of ten thousand florins forwarded to the prisoner 
by the United States banker at Amsterdam. He gave the 
Duke of Orleans, afterwards King Louis Philippe, money to 
flee to America, and the debt was not paid till after the death 
of Morris, which amounted to about $14,000. It needed no 
small amount of courage of Morris's avowed entiments to 
stay in Paris and do what he did when death was mowing 
round him in such a wide swath. Many times his life was 
threatened, and more than once he said it was only saved by 
the fact of his having a wooden leg which made him known 
to the mob as "a cripple of the American war for freedom." 

Thomas Paine, the Englishman, who was there and had 
been elected to the convention, having sided with Gironda 
was thrown into prison by the Jacobins. He at once asked 
Morris to demand his release as an American citizen, a title 
to which he, of course, had no claim. Morris refused, thinking 
Paine by keeping still would be saved by his own insignificance. 
So "the filthy little atheist," as one called him, had to remain 
in prison, where he amused himself by writing a pamphlet 
against Jesus Christ. 

Much more might be said of Morris while in Paris, but 
time will not permit. The French rather took umbrage at 



35 

his haughtiness, but Washington, on the whole, approved 
of his conduct. The insulting aggressions of the French 
minister Genet at home now compelled the United States 
to ask for his recall. 

In August, 1794, Monroe was selected to take the place of 
Morris at the French Court, although Washington's first 
choice for the position was Thomas Pinckney, whom he would 
have transferred from England to France. Roosevelt says 
that "Monroe entered upon his new duties in Paris with an 
immense flourish." Meanwhile Morris did not return to 
America. On account of his business affairs in Europe he 
prolonged his stay abroad for several years, visited Switzer- 
land, stopping a day with Madame de Stael at Coppet, then 
toured through England, Scotland, the Netherlands, Germany, 
Russia and Austria, and interested himself in the liberation of 
Lafayette, then in prison at Olmutz. He was received every- 
where into the most distinguished society of the time. At 
length Morris wound up his business transactions in Europe 
and sailed from Hamburg Oct. 4, 1798, reaching New York 
after a tedious passage of eighty days, and immediately 
joined with the Federalist party, although during the year 1799 
did not take much part in politics, but occupied most of 
his time in putting to rights his estate at Morrisania. The old 
manor-house, a leaky affair, he tore down and built a large, 
solid and comfortable one in its place. The next year he 
entered into law practice and met such legal lights as Hamilton, 
Burr, Robert Livingston, Troup and others. In 1800 we 
find him engaged in an important law-suit before the Court 
of Errors at Albany, in which he had Hamilton for his antago- 
nist, and the same year he was selected by the legislature 
to supply a vacancy in the Senate of the United States, where 
he became a staunch pillar of Federalism, retiring at the close 
of 1803. The next year called him to utter his lamentations 
at the bier of his friend Hamilton, which John Randolph 
declared "was a wretched attempt at oratory." During 
Morris's absence of ten years, the control of the National 
Government had been in the hands of the leaders of the 
Federal party. Their great support had been Washington. 
aided by Hamilton and others. Washington's death in 1799 
greatly diminished the success of that party. Jefferson was 



36 



the great leader of the opposite faction — the Republicans — 
which was gaining a great foothold in governmental affairs. 

Virginia, the great political battle ground, had lost Wash- 
ington, the wisest statesman of all time. Also Patrick Henry, 
the great orator; but Marshall and Madison were left to 
battle for Federalism aided now by Morris of New York 
and a few others. Morris wrote from Washington to one 
of his lady correspondents in Paris at this time, describing 
the seat of the American Government. He said that the city 
"needed nothing but houses, cellars, kitchens, well-informed 
men, amiable women, and other little trifles of the kind to 
make the city perfect." He thought Jefferson a tricky 
theorist, skillful in getting votes, "a man who believed in the 
wisdom of mobs, and the moderation of Jacobins." Morris, 
as a rule upheld the administration of President Adams. 

In the purchase of Louisiana Morris broke with his party 
and voted with the Republicans. Almost his last speech in 
Congress was a telling one in favor of at once occupying the 
territory in dispute. The cost of the purchase of Louisiana 
he brushed aside. He said "a counting-house policy which 
saw nothing but money, a poor, short-sighted, half-witted, 
mean and miserable thing, as far removed from wisdom as 
a monkey from a man." 

At last Napoleon, in great need of funds, sold us Louisiana 
for $15,000,000. Morris said, "I am content to pay my share 
to deprive foreigners of all pretext for entering our interior 
country; if nothing else were gained by the treaty, that 
alone would satisfy me." Morris's term as senator expired 
March 4, 1803. The State then being Democratic he was not 
re-elected, but continued to be interested in public affairs. 
He was one of the leaders in studying the prospect of the 
Erie Canal; in fact, the project was advocated by him during 
the Revolutionary War. The three first reports of the com- 
missioners were all from his pen. "Stephen Van Rensselaer, 
one of the commissioners from the beginning," said Morris, 
"was the father of our great Canal." From this time on he 
spent most of his time at Morrisania, travelling two or three 
months every summer, out in the "Far West," on the shores 
of Lakes Erie and Ontario, and once descending the river 
St. Lawrence. He tilled his farm, and was otherwise occupied 



37 

in reading and receiving his friends. He also carried on a 
wide correspondence on business and politics. On the 25th 
of December, 1809, Morris, then 57 years old, married Miss 
Anne Gary Randolph, a member of the famous Virginia 
family of that name. He lived happily with her and had one 
son. 

Morris was rather formal in his manner of living, 
dressed himself with great care and was very particular about 
his powdered hair. He took the greatest pleasure in life, and 
always insisted that America was the pleasantest country 
in which to live. He was somewhat erratic in his opinions. 
He considered the policy of Jefferson during his second term 
of the presidency, also Madison's, as pitiably weak, so much 
so, it exasperated him and really made him lose his head. 
He almost lost faith in our republican system. His former 
interest in the West now revived, and he proposed that our 
enormous masses of new territory "should be governed as 
provinces and allowed no voice in our councils," an absurd 
idea put forth in his declining years. Morris's bitterness, 
late in life, against the government grew strong, and finally 
his hatred really got the better of his former and sounder 
judgment. He opposed the various embargo acts and nearly 
all other government measures. His opposition to the late 
war with England led him to great lengths. In his bitter 
hatred of the opposite party, he lost all loyalty to the nation. 
He approved of the peace on the terms the British offered, 
which included the curtailment of our western frontier and 
the creation along it of independent Indian sovereignties 
under British protection. He argued with Pinckney that 
it was impious to raise taxes for an urgent war. He tried 
to induce Rufus King, then in the Senate from his own State, 
to advocate the refusal of supplies of every sort, whether of 
men or money, for carrying on the war, but King did not 
obey him. Morris wrote a letter to Harrison Gray Otis, a 
secession sympathizer, saying that he wished the New York 
FederaUsts to declare publicly that the Union, being the 
means of freedom, should be prized as such, but that the end 
should not be sacrificed to the means. He wrote to Pinckney 
Oct. 17, 1814: "I hear every day professions of attachment 
to the Union. I should like," he writes, "to meet with some 



38 

one who can tell me what has become of the Union, in what 
it consists, and to what useful purpose it endures." He 
actually regarded dissolution of the Union as almost an 
accomplished fact, and that New York would go with New 
England, and it was a quandary in his mind whether the 
boundary should be the Delaware, the Susquehanna, or the 
Potomac. He hoped and expected much of the Hartford 
Convention by way of secession, and he wrote to Otis that the 
Convention should declare that the Union was already 
broken and that they should take action for the preservation 
of the Northwest. He was disappointed when the Convention 
fell under the control of Cabot and the Moderates. As late 
as January 10, 1815, he wrote that his section would be 
benefited only by the severance of the Union. It is impossible 
to reconcile his course at this time with his previous career. 
Morris was not alone in advocating secession of New York and 
New England; with him were Harrison Gray Otis, Samuel 
Dexter, WilHam Prescott, EHjah H. Mills, Israel Thorndike, 
Benjamin Russell, John Wells, Pinckney, Quincy, Lowell, and 
even Daniel Webster, who was accused by Theodore Lyman 
as a disunionist. A stenuous politician of our day says that 
"Morris's place is alongside of men like Madison, Samuel 
Adams and Patrick Henry, who did the nation great service 
at times, but each of whom, at some one or two critical junc- 
tures, ranged himself with the forces of disorder." 

Fortunately, this nation in its infancy brought forth a 
statesman who above all others of his time was pre-eminent 
for his steadfast devotion to liberty and the welfare of all 
the people, a wise and far-sighted ofhcial, the immortal 
Washington. After the peace with Great Britain in the 1812 
War, Morris accommodated himself to the changed condition 
with apparent cheerfulness. He good-humoredly yielded 
to the inevitable, and in his very last days said, "Let us forget 
party and think of our country. What does it signify whether 
those who operate her salvation wear a Federal or Democratic 
cloak?" On his death-bed he said: "Sixty-five years ago 
it pleased the Almighty to call me into existence here, on this 
spot, in this very room; and shall I complain that He is 
pleased to call me hence?" On the day of his death he asked 
about the weather. Being told it was fine, he replied (his 



mind recurring to Gray's "Elegy"): "A beautiful day; yes, 

Kiif 



"Who to dumb forgetfulness a prey, 

This pleasing, anxious being ere resigned, 

Left the warm precincts of the cheerful day, 
Nor cast one longing, lingering look behind?' " 

After a short illness of the gout he died November 6, 1816, 
and was buried on his own estate at Morrisania. He was 
a brilliant man, a good orator, and had a very keen intellect. 
He was truthful, upright and fearless, but was haughty in his 
manner and possessed a tyrannical quality in his disposition, 
which at times led him into trouble with his fellow-men. 
He was exceedingly generous, hospitable, and extremely 
fond of good living. Witty and humorous as a companion, 
but of rather hasty temper, he had many good qualities and 
some faults. 

The late Mr. Moore, formerly librarian of the New York 
Historical Society, put on record the following : "Gouverneur 
Morris of New York, one of the noblest of her sons, a great 
man and a good citizen, who could truly say that the welfare 
of his country was his single object during a conspicuous 
career. He never sought, refused, nor resigned an office, 
although there was no department of government in which 
he was not called to act; and it was the unvarying principle 
of his life that the interest of his country must be preferred 
to every other interest. Such a man was Gouverneur Morris, 
the inspired penman of the Federal Constitution." 

The country, certainly, owes much to him for his good 
services and brilliant statesmanship. He was the author 
of "Observations on the American Revolution" (1779); 
"An Address to the Assembly of Pennsylvania on the Aboli- 
tion of the Bank of North America" (1785); "An Address 
in Celebration of the DeHverence of Europe from the Yoke 
of Military Despotism" (1814); an inaugural disccourse 
before the New York Historical Society on his appointment 
as its president, and funeral orations on Washington, Hamilton 
and Gov. George Chnton. He also, late in life, contributed 
political satires in prose and verse to the newspaper press. 



40 

It is generally admitted that he was the more far-seeing 
observer of contemporary men and events than any other 
American or foreign statesman of his time, and his colloquial 
powers were unrivalled. 

It is to be regretted, however, that in his last days, when 
virtually in retirement, he should lose his head, so to speak, 
by going back on his former political teachings and theory 
of government and allying himself with a small coterie 
of prominent New England men who were apparently advo- 
cates of secession. As a consolation to his friends and ad- 
herents of our day, the same might be said of many able 
statesmen who have lived in the States since his time, who 
committed the overt act of secession, and seemingly without 
permanent harm to themselves or the cause they represented. 
If in your judgment my mind is out of gear in making this 
statement, or if I thus predict too prematurely, I await 
for some future historian to confirm or deny this declaration 
of mine. 



No. 9016. 

Commonwealth of fiDaseacbueette. 



18e it fmoton That whereas Rufus George Frederick Candage, 
Edward Wild Baker, Julia Goddard, John Emory Hoar, 
Harriet Alma Cummings, Charles Henry Stearns, James 
Macmaster Codman, Jr., Charles French Read, Edwin 
Birchard Cox, Willard Y. Gross, Charles Knowles Bolton, 
Tappan Eustis Francis, Desmond FitzGerald, D. S. Sanford, 
and Martha A. Kittredge have associated themselves with the inten- 
tion of forming a corporation under the name of the 

Brool?line iDistorical Society, 

for the purpose of the study of the history of the town of Brookline, 
Massachusetts, its societies, organizations, families, individuals, and 
events, the collection and preservation of its antiquities, the establish- 
ment and maintenance of an historical library, and the publication from 
time to time of such information relating to the same as shall be deemed 
expedient, and have complied with the provisions of the statutes of this 
Commonwealth in such case made and provided, as appears from the 
certificate of the President, Treasurer, and Directors of said corporation, 
duly approved by the Commissioner of Corporations and recorded in 
this ofiice ; 

i^oto, tijcrtforr, E, William M. Olin, Secretary of the Commonweath of 
Massachusetts, tio Ijerchg arttfg, that said Rufus George Frederick 
Candage, Edward Wild Baker, Julia Goddard, John Emory 
Hoar, Harriet Alma Cummings, Charles Henry Stearns, 
James Macmaster Codman, Jr., Charles French Read, Edwin 
Birchard Cox, Willard Y. Gross, Charles Knowles Bolton, 
Tappan Eustis Francis, Desmond FitzGerald, D. S. Sanford, 
and Martha A. Kittredge, their associates and successors, are legally 
organized and established as and are hereby made an existing corpora- 
tion under the name of the 

JSroohline Ibistorical Society, 

with the powers, rights and privileges, and subject to the limitations, 
duties and restrictions, which by law appertain thereto. 

SHttncss my official signature hereunto sub- 
scribed, and the seal of the Commonwealth 
of Massachusetts hereunto affixed, this 
twenty-ninth day of April, in the year of our 
Lord one thousand nine hundred and one. 
Wm. M. Olin, 
Secretary of the Commonwealth. 




BROOKLINE HISTORICAL SOCIETY. 



OFFICERS AND COMMITTEES. 
1910. 

President Emeritus. 

RUFUS G. F. Candage. 

President. 
Charles H. Stearns. 

Vice-President. 

William O. Comstock. 

Treasurer. 

Edward W. Baker. 

Clerk. 

Charles F. white. 

Trustees. 

Charles H. Stearns. Mrs. Martha Kittredge. 

Edward W. Baker. Charles F. White. 

Miss Julia Goddard. William O. Comstock. 

Joseph McKey. 

Committee on Finance. 

James M. Codman, Jr. Ernest B. Dane. 

Charles H. Stearns, ex-officio. 

Committee on the Rooms. 

Miss Julia Goddard. Mrs. Susan Vining Griggs. 

Henry W. Lamb. 
Charles H. Stearns, President, ) ^ ^^- •• 
Charles F. White. Clerk, ^ex-ojjtcus. 

Committee on Library. 

Frederick H. Hedge. Henry D. Eustis. ; 

Luther M. Merrill. John H. Sherburne, Jr. ; 

Committee on Papers. i 

William O. Comstock. Joseph McKey. ;' 

Mrs. Louie D. White. 

Committee on Membership. 

James Adams. Miss Louise Howe. 

Willard Y. Gross. James h. Fay. 

Committee on Publications. 

Charles F. Read. Edward W. Baker- 

Charles F. Vv'HITE. 



A 



•Deceased. 

Adams, Benjamin F. 

Adams, Frank Sydney 

Adams, James 

Addison, Daniel Dulany (D. D.) 

Arnold, Mrs. Tirzah S. 

Aspinwall, Thomas 
♦Atkinson, Mrs. Mary C. 

Bailey, Arthur H. 

Baker, Charles M. 

Baker, Mrs. Edith C. 

Baker, Edward Wild 

Bates, Jacob P. 

Bickford, Scott F. 

Blanchard, Benjamin S. (M. D.) 

Boit, Mrs. Robert A. 

Bowker, Edwin P. 

Burdett, Frank W. 

Cabot, Elizabeth Rogers 
tCandage, Rufus George Frederick 
tCandage, Mrs. Ella Marie 

Candage, Robert Brooks 

Carroll, B. Frank 

Chandler, Alfred Dupont 

Channing, Walter (M. D.) 
*Chase, Caleb 

Chase, Miss Ellen 

Clapp, Miss Mary C. 

Clement, Thomas W. 

Codman, James Macmaster 

Codman, James Macmaster, Jr. 

Cole, Samuel W. 

Comstock, William O. 
tConant, Lewis S. 

Conant, Nathaniel 

CooHdge, Miss Ellen G. 

Cox, Edwin Birchard 

Craig, William 
tCummings, Prentiss 



MEMBERS. 
1910. 

JBenefactors. 



tLife Membefs. 



J Dane, Ernest B. 
Davenport, Francis H. 
Davis, George P. 
Dearborn, George F. 
Doliber, Thomas 
Driscoll, Michael 
Duncklee, Charles B. 

Estabrook, Willard W. 
tEustis, Miss Elizabeth M. 
tEustis, Henry D. 

Eustis, Joseph Tracy 
tEustis, Miss Mary S. B. 

Fay, James H. 
tFish, Mrs. Clara P. 

Fish, Frederick P. 

FitzGerald, Desmond 
tFitzpatrick, Thomas B. 
*Folsom, Albert Alonzo 

Folsom, Mrs. Julia E. 

Francis, Carleton S. (M. D.) 

Francis, George H. (M. D.) 
*Francis, Tappan Eustis (M. D.) 

French, Alexis H. 

Gaither, Charles Perry 
tGay, Frederick Lewis 

Gibbs, Emery B. 
tGoddard, Miss Julia 
jGoddard, Mary Louisa 

Gray, William H. 

Griggs, Mrs. Susan Vining 

Guild, Mrs. Sarah E. M. 

Hedge, Frederick H. 
tHill, William H. 
Hoar, David Blakely 
Hobbs, Franklin W. 
Hopkins, Charles A. 



44 



Hook, Miss Maria C. 
Hough, Benjamin Kent 
Howe, Miss Harriet Augusta 
Howe, Miss Louise 
Hunt, William D. 
Hunt, Mrs. William D. 

Jones, Mrs. Clarence W. 
t Jones, Jerome 

Kenrick, Alfred Eugene 
t Kimball, Miss Helen Frances 
t Kimball, Lulu Stacy 
tKittredge, Mrs. Martha A. 

Lamb, Henry W. 
Lamb, Miss Augusta T. 
Lauriat, Charles E. 
*LeMoyne, Macpherson 
Lincoln, Albert L. 
Lincoln, William E. 
Lincoln, Mrs. William E. 
Lincoln, William Henry 
Little, James Lovell 
Longyear, John M. 
Luke, Otis H. 
Lyon, William Henry (D. D.) 

*Mann, George Sumner 

Mason, Frank H. 

Maxwell, George Frederic 

Mellen, George M. 
tMerrill, Frank A. 
tMerrill, Luther M. 

Moore, J. Herbert (M. D.) 

Mortimer, Sara White Lee 

Mowry, Oscar B. 

McKey, Joseph 

McKey, Mrs. W. R. 

Murphy, James S. 

Norton, Fred L. 

Otis, Herbert Foster 

Palmer, Mrs. Emma L. 
Parsons, William E. 



Pattee, Mrs. Eleanor T. 
Pearson, Charles Henry 
tPerry, Arthur 
Poor, Mrs. Lillie Oliver 
Poor, James Ridgway 
Pope, Arthur Wallace 
Porter, Georgia M. Whidden 
Prudden, Theodore P. 

Read, Charles French 

t Richardson, Frederic Leopold 
Wm. 
Richardson, Henry Hobson 
Ritchie, Andrew Montgomery 

*Rooney, James C. 

Sabine, George K. (M. D.) 

Salisbury, William Cabot Gorham 
tSargent, Charles Sprague 

Saunders, Joseph H. (M. D.) 

Saxe, John W. 

Seaver, William James 

Shaw, James F. 

Sherburne, John H., Jr. 

Snow, Franklin A. 

Spencer, Charles A. W. 

Stearns, Charles Henry 

Stearns, Mrs. Charles H. 

Stearns, James Pierce 

Stearns, William Bramhall 
*Stevens, Mrs. Mary Louise 

Stone, Galen L. 

Storrow, Charles 

Swan, Reuben S. 
*Swan, Robert T. 

tTalbot, Fritz B. (M. D.) 
Thayer, Frank Bartlett 

Utley, Charles H. 

Walker, Nathaniel U. 

Ware, Henry 

Warren, Edward R. 

Watson, Mrs. Eliza Tilden Goddard 

Wead, Leslie C. 

Whitcomb, Lawrence 



45 



White. Charles F. 
White, Mrs. Louie D. 
White, William H. 
White, William Howard 
White, William Ome (D. D.) 
Whiting, John K. 
Whitman, William 
Whitney, Henry M. 
tWightman, George H. 



Willcutt, Levi Lincoln 
Williams, Charles A. 
Williams, Mrs. Elizabeth Whit- 
ney 
Williams, Moses 
Woods, J. Henry (M. D.) 
Wright, Mrs. Mary W. 

Young, William Hill 



CORRESPONDING MEMBER. 
Ricker, Mrs. Emeline Carr 



BROOKLINE HISTORICAL SOCIETY. 



BY-LAWS. 

ARTICLE I. 

NAME. 

The name of this corporation shall be Brookline Historical 

Society. 

ARTICLE IL 

OBJECTS. 

The objects of this Society shall be the study of the history of 
the town of Brookline, Massachusetts, its societies, organizations, 
families, individuals, events ; the collection and preservation of its 
antiquities, the establishment and maintenance of an historical 
library, and the publication from time to time of such information 
relating to the same as shall be deemed expedient. 

ARTICLE III. 

MEMBERSHIP. 

Any person of moral character who shall be nominated and 
approved by the Board of Trustees may be elected to membership 
by ballot of two-thirds of the members present and voting therecn 
at any regular meeting of the Society. Each person so elected 
shall pay an admission fee of three dollars, and an annual assess- 
ment of two dollars ; and any member who shall fail for two con- 
secutive years to pay the annual assessment shall cease to be a 
member of this Society ; provided^ however, that any member who 
shall pay twenty-five dollars in any one year may thereby become 
a Life member ; and any member who shall pay fifty dollars in any 
one year may thereby become a Benefactor of the Society, and 
thereafter shall be free from all dues and assessments. The money 
received from Life members and Benefactors shall constitute a 
fund, of which not more than twenty per cent, together with the 
annual income therefrom, shall be spent in any one year. 

The Society may elect Honorary and Corresponding members 
in the manner in which annual members are elected, but they shall 
have no voice in the management of the Society, and shall not be 
subject to fee or assessment. 

ARTICLE IV. 

CERTIFICATES. 

Certificates signed by the President and the Clerk may be issued 
to all persons who become Life members, and to Benefactors. 



ARTICLE V. 

OFFICERS. 

The officers of this Society shall be seven Trustees, a President, 
a Vice-President, a Secretary (who shall be Clerk of the Society 
and may also be elected to fill the office of Treasurer), and a 
Treasurer, who, together, shall constitute the Board of Trustees, 
The Trustees, Clerk, and Treasurer shall be chosen by ballot at 
the annual meeting in January, and shall hold office for one year, 
and until others are chosen and qualified in their stead. The 
President and Vice-President shall be chosen by the Board of 
Trustees from their number at their first meeting after their 
election, or at an adjournment thereof. The officers of the Society 
shall also include a President Emeritus when the Society shall so 
vote. 

ARTICLE VI. 

MEETINGS. 

The annual meeting of this Society shall be held on the third 
Wednesday of January. Regular stated meetings shall be held on 
the third Wednesday of February, March, April, May, October, 
November, and December. 

Special meetings may be called by order of the Board of Trus- 
tees. The Clerk shall notify each member by a written or printed 
notice sent through the mail postpaid at least three days before 
the time of meeting, or by publishing such notice in one or more 
newspapers published in Brookline. 

At all meetings of the Society ten (ro) members shall constitute 
a quorum for the transaction of business. 

The meetings of the Board of Trustees shall be called by the 
Clerk at the request of the President, by giving each member 
personal or written notice, or by sending such notice by mail, post- 
paid, at least twenty-four hours before the time of such meeting ; 
but meetings where all the Trustees are present may be held with- 
out such notice. The President shall call meetings of the Board 
of Trustees at the request of any three members thereof. A 
majority of its members shall constitute a quorum for the transac- 
tion of business. 

ARTICLE VIL 

VACANCIES. 

Vacancies in the offices of Trustees, Clerk, or Treasurer maybe 
filled for the remainder of the term at any regular meeting of the 
Society by the vote of two-thirds of the members present and 
voting. In the absence of the Clerk at a meeting of the Society, a 
Clerk pro tempore shall be chosen. 



in 
ARTICLE VIII. 

NOMINATING COMMITTEE. 

At the monthly meeting in December, a Nominating Committee 
of three members shall be appointed by the presiding officer, who 
shall report at the annual meeting a list of candidates for the 
places to be filled. 

ARTICLE IX. 

PRESIDING OFFICER. 

The President, or in his absence the Vice-President, shall pre- 
side at all meetings of the Society. In the absence of those 
officers a President /ri? tenipore shall be chosen. 

ARTICLE X. 

DUTIES OF THE CLERK. 

The Clerk shall be sworn to the faithful discharge of his duties. 
He shall notify members of all meetings of the Society, and shall 
keep an exact record of all the proceedings of the Society at its 
meetings. 

He shall conduct the general correspondence of the Society and 
place on file all letters received. 

He shall enter the names of members in order in books or cards 
kept for that purpose, and issue certificates to Life members and to 
Benefactors. 

He shall have charge of such property in possession of the 
Society as may from time to time be delegated to him by the Board 
of Trustees. 

He shall acknowledge all loans or gifts made to the Society. 

ARTICLE XI. 

DUTIES OF THE TREASURER. 

The Treasurer shall collect all moneys due the Society, and pay 
all bills against the Society when approved by the Board of 
Trustees. He shall keep a full account of receipts and expendi- 
tures in a book belonging to the Society, which shall always be 
open to the inspection of the Trustees ; and at the annual meeting 
in January he shall make a written report of all his doings for the 
year preceding. The Treasurer shall give bonds in such sum, with 
surety, as the Trustees may fix, for the faithful discharge of his 
duties. 

ARTICLE XII. 

DUTIES AND POWERS OF TRUSTEES. 

The Board of Trustees shall superintend the prudential and 
executive business of the Society, authorize all expenditures of 



IV 

money, fix all salaries, provide a common seal, receive and act 
upon all resignations and forfeitures of membership, and see that 
the by-laws are duly complied with. The Board of Trustees shall 
have full powers to hire, lease, or arrange for a suitable home for 
the Society, and to make all necessary rules and regulations 
required in the premises. 

They shall make a report of their doings at the annual meeting 
of the Society. 

They may from time to time appoint such sub-committees from 
their own number as they deem expedient. 

In case of a vacancy in the office of Clerk or Treasurer they 
shall have power to choose the same pro tempore till the next 
meeting of the Society. 

ARTICLE XIII. 

STANDING COMMITTEES. 

The President shall annually, in the month of January, appoint 
four standing committees, as follows :— 

Committee on Rooms. 
A committee of three members, to be styled the " Committee on 
Rooms," to which shall be added the President and Clerk of the 
Society ex-officio, who shall have charge of all arrangements of 
the rooms (except books, manuscripts, and other objects appro- 
priate to the library offered as gifts or loans), the hanging of 
pictures, and the general arrangements of the Society's collection 
in their department. 

Committee on Papers. 
A committee of three members, to be styled the " Committee on 
Papers," who shall have charge of the subjects of papers to be 
read, or other exercises of a profitable nature, at the monthly 
meetings of the Society. 

Committee on Membership. 

A committee of three or more members, to be styled the " Com- 
mittee on Membership," whose duty it shall be to give information 
in regard to the purposes of the Society, and increase its mem- 
bership. 

Committee on Library. 

A committee of three or more members, to be styled the " Com- 
mittee on Library," who shall have charge of the arrangements of 
the library, including acceptance and rejection of books, manu- 
scripts, and other objects tendered to the library, and the general 
arrangement of the Society's collections in that department. 



These four committees shall perform their duties as above set 
forth under the general direction and supervision of the Board of 
Trustees. 

Vacancies that occur in any of these committees during their 
term of service shall be filled by the President. 

ARTICLE XIV. 

FINANCE COMMITTEE. 

The President shall annually, in the month of January, appoint 
two members, who, with the President, shall constitute the Com- 
mittee on Finance, to examine from time to time the books and 
accounts of the Treasurer, to audit his accounts at the close of the 
year, and to report upon the expediency of proposed expenditures 
of money. 

ARTICLE XV. 

AMENDMENTS. 

These by-laws may be altered or amended at any regular meeting 
by a two-thirds vote of the members present, notice of the subject- 
matter of the proposed alterations or amendments having been 
given at a previous meeting. 




PROCEEDINGS 



OF THE 



Brookline Historical Society 

AT THE 

ANNUAL MEETING. JANUARY 18, 1911 



PROCEEDINGS 



OF THE 



Brookline Historical Society 



AT THE 



ANNUAL MEETING, JANUARY i8, 1911 




BROOKLINE, MASS.: 
PUBLISHED BY THE SOCIETY 
M CM XI 



Committee on Publications. 

Charles F. Read. Edward W. Baker. 

Charles F. White. 



OCT 7 iW» 



CONTENTS. 



I. President's Address ..... 5 

II. Report of the Treasurer .... 14 

III. Report of the Nominating Committee . 15 

IV. Extracts from the Diary of Benjamin 

GoDDARD of Brookline, 1812-1821 . 16 

V. Officers and Committees .... 49 

VI. List of Members ..... 50 

VII. By-Laws 53 



/ 



-.M^J^-^^l 




BROOKLINE HISTORICAL SOCIETY. 



TENTH ANNUAL MEETING. 



The tenth annual meeting of the Brookline His- 
torical Society was held in the Edward Devotion 
House, Brookline, Mass., on Wednesday, January 
18, 1911, at 8 p. m., in accordance with a notice 
mailed to every member. President Charles H. 
Stearns was in the chair. 

The records of the last annual and monthly meet- 
ings were read and the President then delivered his 
annual address. 

PRESIDENT'S ANNUAL ADDRESS. 

Members of the Brookline Historical Society: — 

In beginning this, my second annual greeting as your 
President, and the tenth year in the life of this Society, I 
desire to thank those members whom I could always count 
upon to be present at our meetings. The interest of those 
who attend regularly is unflagging, and makes up for the 
comparatively small attendance. The change in the place 
of our meetings has increased somewhat the numbers; whether 
from the novelty of the surroundings or otherwise time will 
tell. Yet, friends, I would not begin this paper in a pessi- 
mistic vein. I know how difificult it is to get a large attend- 
ance at meetings in Brookline where there are so many and 
diverse attractions, and I trust that the gatherings in this 
venerable and time-honored place may prove the wisdom 
of our removal from our former comfortable quarters in the 
Town Hall. We certainly are greatly indebted to the Grand 



Army Post for their most courteous invitation to occupy 
their rooms, and we may again find it advantageous to occa- 
sionally have our meetings there. It behooves us to do all we 
can to make our meetings interesting and profitable. 

The following have been the papers presented during the 
past year, 1910: — 

January 19. Annual meeting, election of officers, address by the newly- 
elected president, in which, besides the ordinary details, he gave an account 
of some of the older houses in our town. 

February 16. "The Earthquake of 1908 in Sicily," by Mrs. Martha C. 
Kittredge, one of our members. This was a personal experience of the 
writer, who was on the island at the time of the eruption, and she gave a 
most vivid description of the scenes of devastation, many of which she 
actually saw. It was a most interesting account and was listened to by 
a number of Mrs. Kittredge's friends, in addition to the usual attendance. 

March 23. "The Buckminster Family," by Rufus G. F. Candage, our 
former president. As your president was out of the state at that time he 
cannot give you an account of this paper. Vice-President Comstock pre- 
sided. 

April 20. "On the Border in '54," by John F. Ayer of Wakefield. 
This was a story of the experiences of the writer, and it was hard to realize 
that he, a vigorous, energetic veteran, could have been the one who par- 
ticipated in those stirring times fifty-six years ago, when he, a stripling, 
went with a band of Massachusetts men to do what they could to have 
Kansas enrolled as a free state. These pioneers went into what was then 
a vast wilderness, far from the borders of civilization, to plant the Flag 
of Freedom, in the face of emissaries of the slave power, to endeavor to 
make Kansas a free state. It was a very entertaining paper and was 
listened to by a good audience. 

May 18. "Brookline in 1861," by Edward Wild Baker. This paper 
was prepared from the reports of meetings held in Brookline in those 
exciting days in the beginning of the Civil War. It was most graphically 
told, and to the few in the audience who were here at that time, it most 
vividly brought back the memory of those stirring days when frequent 
patriotic meetings were held and the enlistment of men for the army was 
strenuously urged. Quite a delegation of the army post was present. 

The summer interim. 

October 19. "An Early New England Adventure," by one of our 
townsmen, Hosea Starr Ballou. The word "adventure" was synonymous 
with our modern word "venture," and the paper gave an account of the 
fitting out of English vessels with stores for the New England colonies. 

November. 16. "Old Queen Street, Boston," by Walter Kendall 
Walkins of Maiden. This was the first meeting in the Devotion House, 
and partly from the novelty of the occasion, as well as the old-time flavor 
of the title of the paper, there were some thirty gathered in the upper 
room of the old house. The paper was an exceedingly interesting one. 



and gave an account of what is now Court street from the seventeenth 
century to the middle of the nineteenth. The wonder is, how the writer 
could have obtained the facts of that by-gone period, and could so cor- 
rectly locate the old buildings on that ancient thoroughfare. An inno- 
vation was made at this meeting of serving coffee and cakes at the end 
of the reading of the paper. 

December 21. "Journal of Benjamin Goddard," by Edward W. 
Baker. Benjamin Goddard was a Boston merchant who came to Brook- 
line about 1810 and lived in the fine old mansion which is still standing 
on Clinton road, but which was built on land now owned by Mrs. Jonathan 
White, and facing Boylston street. Two excellent reproductions of this 
old mansion and of the farmhouse nearby accompanied the notice of this 
meeting. This diary or journal has within a few years come to light and 
has been deposited for safe-keeping in the vault of the Town Clerk's ofifice, 
and Mr. Baker has selected portions of it, particularly of the years 1812, 
1813 and 1814, the period in which occurred the second war with Eng- 
land, and related largely to Mr. Goddard 's emphatic opinions regarding 
the action of the then President of the United States, in bringing on and 
declaring the war. The journal also gave items of local interest, the 
results of Mr. Goddard's farming, social functions, which were frequent 
in those days, records of Sunday's sermons, in which he spoke of Dr. John 
Pierce, and other interesting matters. It was one of the most entertain- 
ing papers our Society has been favored with, and was listened to by 
about thirty persons gathered in the kitchen, which is the largest room 
in the house. In the audience were two of Mr. Goddard's descendants, 
who gave short talks on their ancestor. 

The membership of the Society January 1, 1910, was 165; 
that of January 1, 1911, is 167. Five new members have 
been admitted, and there have been no resignations. Three 
members have died during the year, viz.: Mrs. Ada Ripley 
(Heath) Doliber, the wife of Thomas DoHber of Goddard 
avenue, who died January 3, 1910, aged 54 years, 7 months. 
Mr. Lewis Wight, died January 12, aged 77 years, 5 months. 
Mr. Francis Adams White, died January 13, aged 85 years, 
8 months. 



Mrs. Doliber was the daughter of Charles Henry Heath, 
whose father was Charles Heath, and whose grandfather was 
Ebeneezer Heath, who lived in the house still standing on 
Heath, near Boylston street, now occupied by the Misses 
Dana. The Heath family has been very prominent in 
Brookline affairs, and as those who were present at our last 
meeting will remember, was frequently mentioned by Mr. 



8 

Goddard in the social gatherings at his house. Mrs. Doliber's 
mother was Lucy Ripley, who lived on Walnut street, in the 
house now occupied by Edwin N. Crosby. Mrs. Doliber 
some years ago wrote a paper for one of the D. A. R.'s about 
the Heath family, which was afterwards read at one of our 
meetings. 



Mr. Lewis Wight has been a resident of Brookline for a 
number of years, living in a fine house on Rawson road. He 
had been in the fur business but had retired. He had not 
been an active member of our Society. 



Mr. White, the father of our Secretary, was born in the 
town of Boylston, Mass., the youngest of ten children. His 
grandfather, Aaron White, was a native of Brookline, though 
removing to Roxbury about 1769, and settling on what has 
since been known as Mount Pleasant. It is interesting to 
know that this large family of children all lived to well past 
middle life, the average age attained being over eighty-four 
years. Mr. Francis White lived in Roxbury in early life and 
was engaged with his brother Isaac in the leather business. 
In 1858 he bought of Nathaniel Goddard the place on Warren 
street, Brookline, where he passed the remainder of his life. 
The name of White has always been identified with the life 
of Brookline, three of that name being on the petition to 
the General Court for incorporation as a town. 



During the past year the decennial United States census 
has been taken, and the population of Brookline as of 1910 
is 27,792, an increase during the ten years of 7,851. 

At the same time we must remember that mere numbers 
do not add to the real growth of a town. A majority of the 
increase are residents of apartment houses, who do not 
always add to its real wealth or strength. We must not 
make a sweeping denunciation of such residents, for many, 
no doubt, are most desirable citizens, but a majority 
come to these apartments simply to sleep and have but 
little to do with the affairs of the town. The total number 
of polls (males of twenty years and over) as taken by the 



assessors April, 1910, was 7,486, while the registered voters 
were about 4,800. 

The new Public Library, which was mentioned as in process 
of erection in last year's address, was finished during the 
past summer. The old building which had been moved to 
one corner of the lot, was pulled down, the grounds have 
been graded, and the new building was dedicated on the 
afternoon of November 17, with a most impressive service. 
The building is simple in its style, but dignified, and grows 
in beauty and stateliness the better one is acquainted with it. 

The streets in and around Coolidge Corner have been 
paved with granite blocks, with cement grout, another evi- 
dence that the town, or the northern part of it, at least, is 
fast losing its suburban character, and is becoming but an 
adjunct of a great city. 

A new trust company has recently been opened in that 
locality. 

Among the deaths of prominent citizens during the year, 
mention should be made of Manning Seamans, who was born 
in the town. For many years he was associated with his 
father in the grocery business, and since Mr. James Seamans' 
retirement. Manning has carried it on in his own name. He 
will be greatly missed from Harvard Square. 

As I have said, our Society has recently held its meetings 
in this (so-called) Devotion House. As the status of this 
house and the occupancy of it may not be familiar to all our 
members, I will briefly state it. The house itself and the lot 
on which it stands is owned by the town, which bought about 
seven acres of land twenty years ago for school and other 
purposes. Two large brick buildings to accommodate the 
Devotion Grammar and Primary Schools were built on the 
Harvard street front, and an engine house on the Devotion 
street side. The land on Stedman street is used as a play- 
ground. For several years after the town had acquired 
the land, and before the schoolhouses had been completed, 
the large barn on the lot was used by the street department, 
and the house was occupied by laborers. After the schools 
were opened the School Committee recommended the tearing 
down of the old house, which had become very much out of 
repair, but a strong opposition arose, so strong that when an 



10 



article in the town warrant asking for an appropriation to 
put the house in good condition was brought up in town 
meeting, it was carried by a large majority. 

Quite a sum was spent in repairs, and for a year or more 
it remained vacant. Then some patriotic citizens, including 
the members of this Society and the ladies of the D. A. R. 
and the D. R., pledged money sufficient to care for the build- 
ing for three years, and the town, or its Selectmen, granted 
an association known as the Devotion House Association, 
leave to occupy it for that length of time. The house has 
been opened and used as a museum of antiques and relics and 
open to the public twice a week, at a charge of admission of 
ten cents. This Society is the largest contributor to this 
fund, and as this is the third year of this arrangement, it has 
been suggested that the Brookline Historical Society take 
the charge of the building at the end of the term, provided 
the town allows the continuation of the present arrangement. 
It would be well for the Executive Committee to take this into 
consideration. 

Two different papers have been read before this Society 
concerning the Devotion family — one by Mrs. Thomas Griggs, 
giving a history of the family, and one by Mr. Edward W. 
Baker, giving an account of the Devotion fund which was left 
by Edward Devotion for education in the town. It may 
be interesting to say something about the more modern 
occupation of the house and farm by the late George Bab- 
cock, who owned and tilled it for many years ; and what I may 
say will be largely from my own recollections of the place. 
The original Devotion farm extended on the north to Charles 
River and joined the Sewall farm on the east. The laying 
out of the mill dam and its branch to Brighton, now Com- 
monwealth avenue, cut the farm in two, and a syndicate of 
Boston merchants, among whom David Sears was one, 
thinking that this new approach to Boston would greatly 
advance the value of lands adjacent to it, bought large tracts 
in what was then Brookline, including this farm. Some of 
the Sears land is still held in the family; also the large tract 
on the north of Commonwealth avenue, now occupied by a 
golf club, is still owned by the descendants of Ebeneezer 
Francis, another of this syndicate. 



11 

Mr. Babcock probably hired his farm of these gentlemen 
when he first came to Brookline, between 1830 and 1840. 
He subsequently bought it or a part of it, seventy-three and 
a half acres, according to the tax list of 1850, bounded by 
Harvard street and Brighton, now Commonwealth avenue. 
The Harvard street frontage extended from about one hun- 
dred feet east of Babcock street, to the land now owned by 
the Ayer family. The Brighton avenue frontage was not 
so extensive, but the farm embraced all of the streets which 
have subsequently been built on this large tract. It was a 
most beautiful piece of land, diversified by hill and dale. 
It also included a large growth of woods. Babcock's woods, 
Babcock's hill, Babcock's meadow, were household words 
to the boys of the decade from 1850 to 1860. A farm road 
meandered the entire length of the farm from Harvard street 
to Brighton avenue, crossing brooks on rustic bridges and 
again running through high banks of land. The hill, now 
almost entirely gone, rose quite abruptly from near the 
northerly line of Harvard street, leaving a narrow strip of 
land between the hill and the road, which was used by Mr. 
Babcock for his early peas. It was a sunny, protected spot, 
and it was one of his ambitions to take in the first peas to 
Boston market and to have it recorded in the Boston Post, 
for Mr. Babcock was a good democrat, and a faithful reader 
of that paper. It used to be a by-word among the farmers 
in the vicinity, perhaps prompted by jealousy, that Mr. 
Babcock used to go out on some mild February day with his 
men and make holes through the frost with a crowbar, to 
put in his seed peas, in order to ensure an early crop. Another 
of his ambitions was to take the first prize at the Norfolk 
County Cattle Show for his yoke of steers, and he had a fine 
wooden yoke, which he used expressly for taking them to 
and from Dedham on the day of the fair, the yoke reposing 
for the rest of the year in his parlor. 

This farm with its groves and pond has been the inspira- 
tion for many a pencil sketch and painting. There were 
broad ditches, which made capital places for skating in the 
winter time, and in summer the woods made an attractive 
spot for picnics. The house itself had a large lean-to in the 
rear, which was taken away when the town repaired the 



12 

premises. There were also a large barn and numerous sheds 
and outbuildings. Miss Woods in her history of Brookline 
speaks of the beautiful elms shading the house. Several 
of these were taken down when the schoolhouses were built, 
and an enormous rock maple which stood just at the gateway, 
had to be sacrificed when Harvard street was widened. The 
present maples that are growing so finely on either side of 
the house were planted after the town had acquired the 
land. Mr. Babcock was a quiet, retiring man, but eccentric 
and of the old school. He always wore a stovepipe hat winter 
or summer, on his market wagon or in the field, oftentimes 
with the nap almost entirely worn ofT. He had an over- 
coat, called in those days a surtout, which he wore for best 
for forty years, and he boasted that it had been in and out of 
fashion four times in those years. Although he worked hard, 
he had not the faculty of laying up money, and the story 
goes that when one of his hired men, who had lived with him 
for over twenty years, wanted to visit his old home in Ireland, 
Mr. Babcock had to mortgage his farm to pay the man 
his accumulated wages. He died in 1867, and the same year 
a large part of the farm extending from Harvard street to 
Brighton avenue, on the easterly side, amounting to forty- 
three acres, was sold to Henry Blaney who lived on Park 
street, where the Methodist Church now stands. Mr. 
Blaney had for some time tried to induce Mr. Babcock to sell 
him this land, but in vain, for he was very loth to part with his 
farm, although he was so impecunious; but one day a mutual 
friend, who had been sent for that purpose, induced him to 
consent to the sale, and after the land had been surveyed 
and the preliminaries arranged a day was set for the signing 
of the deed at Mr. Bowditch's ofifice in Boston. But Mr. 
Babcock had had time to repent of his agreement to sell, and 
on the day set he harnessed up his horse into his old market 
wagon and drove away early into the country, not returning 
until nightfall. Whether he did finally sign the deed or 
whether the transfer was made after his death, I am not 
sure, but doubtless the excitement hastened his death. 

Mr. Blaney laid out this large tract and built the present 
Babcock street and set out the fine row of maples on either 
side. He also built three or four houses as an inducement 



13 

for people to buy house lots, but the time had not come for 
this and his venture was not a profitable one, as we all know. 
Babcock street and the streets that run into it are now well 
built up. Another large tract west of the house, called the 
pasture lot and including the pond and part of the hill, was 
sold soon after to James M. Deals of the aforesaid Boston Post. 
After Mr. Beals' death it was again sold to Benjamin B. 
Newhall, who graded the land, carting the gravel from the 
hill to fill up the pond, and built Beals and Stedman streets. 
He began to build on and near Harvard street, but died in the 
midst of the work. This tract was thirteen acres in extent, 
and is now mostly built over. Quite a quantity of land still 
remained in the family, the rest of the hill and the valley 
beyond, also that immediately surrounding the house. The 
former was sold to several Brookline gentlemen, Mr. John 
Gibbs acting as their agent, and at his death Mr. James 
Seamans taking the office. An immense quantity of gravel 
was sold from the hill, and the land was afterwards sold to 
David H. McKay, who laid out Naples road. Fuller, Coolidge 
and Thorndike streets, and built a number of houses. He, 
too, died while still in his enterprise, and the land has been 
sold to various parties. Mrs. Babcock survived her husband 
many years. There were no children born to the couple, and 
her nephew, Nahum Smith of Weston, inherited what was 
left of the farm, and he it was who sold six and three-quarters 
acres to the town in 1891. The price paid for this lot was 
$61,000. And so has passed the Devotion-Babcock farm, 
like so many of the farms of the town. In this case the very 
topography of the land has changed, and there has been a 
literal fulfilment of Scripture, in that "the valleys have been 
exalted and the hills laid low: the crooked (cart paths) have 
been made straight and the rough places plain." 



14 
REPORT OF THE TREASURER. 



Edward W. Baker, Treasurer, 
In account with Brookline Historical Society, 
Balance on hand January 1, 1910: — 

Permanent fund $941 82 

Current fund 63 54 

$1,005 36 

Receipts to December 31, 1910: — 

Permanent fund $ 58 45 

Current fund 178 25 

236 70 

Total balances and receipts $1,242 06 

Expenditures. 
January 1, 1910, to December 31, 1910: — 
From Current Fund. 

Printing Annual Report $112 50 

Printing Notices, etc 58 25 

Addressing Circulars and Notices ... 10 00 

Postage 23 20 

Electrotypes 15 93 

Photographs 3 00 

Bay State Historical League 2 00 

Carriage hire 3 00 

Refreshments 2 25 

Total expenditures $230 13 

Balance January 1, 1911: — 

Permanent fund $1,000 27 

Current fund 11 66 



Total balances $1,011 93 

Edward W. Baker, Treasurer. 



I have examined the accounts of Edward W. Baker, Treasurer of the Brookline Histori- 
cal Society, and find the same correct, with proper vouchers for all payments. The bank 
books have been exhibited and verified. The balance in the Permanent Fund is $1,000.27 
and in the Current Fund $11.66 as of January 1, 1911. 

January 17, 1911. Charles H. Stearns, Auditor. 



15 



REPORT OF THE NOMINATING COMMITTEE. 



Your committee appointed to nominate officers of the 
Brookline Historical Society for the coming year begs leave 
to report that it has attended to its duty and proposes the 
following candidates : — 

For Clerk. 
Charles F. White. 

For Treasurer. 
Edward W. Baker. 

For Trustees. 
Charles H. Stearns, 
Charles F. White, 
Edward W. Baker, 
William O. Comstock, 
Joseph McKey, 
Miss Julia Goddard, 
Mrs. Martha C. Kittredge. 

All of which is respectfully submitted. 

Charles F. Read, 

James Adams, 

Mrs. Susan Vining Griggs. 

Brookline, Mass., January 10, 1911. 

The report was accepted and it was voted to proceed to 
ballot. The ballot was taken and the candidates nominated 
were unanimously elected. 

Voted, to print the President's address. Treasurer's report, 
by-laws, lists of officers and members, and such papers as the 
Committee on Publications may select. 

Voted, to dissolve the meeting. 

Charles F. White, Clerk. 



16 



EXTRACTS FROM THE DIARY OF BENJAMIN 

GODDARD OF BROOKLINE 

1812-1821. 

[Compiled and read before the Society by Edward W. Baker.] 

The diary of Benjamin Goddard of Brookline from Janu- 
ary 1, 1812, to 1854, has come into the possession of the 
BrookHne Historical Society through the thoughtfulness and 
courtesy of his grand-nephews. 

This manuscript was discovered among a lot of family 
papers in the keeping of one of the older members of the 
family and at first inspection was thought to consist only of 
farm accounts and other business memoranda. After it 
came into the Society's possession, a careful examination by 
the writer discovered a great mass of information of historical 
interest, of which only a portion can be made use of at this 
time. 

Benjamin Goddard may be remembered by some of the 
older residents of Brookline. He died in his home on Boyl- 
ston street, near the present corner of Sumner road, October 
26, 1861. He was born in Brookline in the Goddard home- 
stead on Goddard avenue, March 20, 1766. 

On the Sunday following his decease a sermon was preached 
in the First Parish Meeting House, and the reference to his 
identity with the town may well be quoted. 

Benjamin Goddard was known in the days of his strength 
as one of the most influential and active members of the com- 
munity to whose good offices and pure example, 

to whose steadfast perseverance in every known duty and 
loyal fidelity to every worthy cause and work, this town, 
then united in a single parish, owed much of its character 
and prosperity. Intellectually, Mr. Goddard was distinguished 
by strong native sense and clear judgment, discerning at 
once the practical bearing of every question, and not easily 
imposed upon by novelty or pretense. Of his moral character 
truth was the prominent and prevailing trait. A man of 
strict justice and incorruptible integrity. True to every social 
obligation, and thoroughly conscientious to all the minutiae 
of life, he was also a wise and faithful steward of the goods 



17 

entrusted to him: often a liberal, always a judicious bene- 
factor, abounding in good works. A uniform cheerfulness 
characterized his social converse and a humor which age and 
infirmity could not quench. Words of bitterness were foreign 
to his lips, with friendly interest in all his acquaintance, 
lively sympathy with all the suffering, hearty good will toward 
all mankind. 

A most worthy, upright, kindly-affectioned man, one who 
wished well to his kind and contributed what in him lay to 
further the general good. Such is the verdict of all who 
knew him. 

Benjamin Goddard's journal proves that he possessed to a 
marked degree all the traits of character which a friendly 
eulogist might wish for. 

Accuracy, perseverance, diligence, industry, keen obser- 
vation, humor, sympathy and abundant philosophy are all 
shown in his records about the weather, the labor of his hired 
help, the occupations of himself and other members of his 
household, their journeyings to and from the neighbors, or to 
further distances — as he says, "the family comes and goes 
like the old woman's soap." He discusses questions of 
national administration and world-wide politics between 
visits to the Newton wood lot, clearing the young orchard 
from rocks and weeds and entertaining guests who call "to 
drink tea." He gives his views on business questions, he 
records the texts for both meetings on the Sabbath, he tells 
the names of all company, whether callers, transients, or, as he 
terms them in one entry, "squatters." He tells about all 
the events of family life — joys and sorrows — celebrations 
and sadnesses. He confides to his journal his opinions on 
public affairs and expresses them in language not to be mis- 
understood. 

1812, February 10. 

Pleasant. Townsend to Boston to Mayo's. Self to Boston 
with Mrs. G. — dined at Summer street — left Mrs. G. to 
pass the night. 

Visited at our parents the greatest part of the evening — 
talked of events in the revolutionary war and of the politics 
of the present day. 

On this date his father (b. 1730) was eighty-two years and 
his mother (b. 1735) was seventy-seven years of age. His 



18 

father was John Goddard who responded to the Lexington 
alarm and was later Wagon Master General to the army of 
General Washington until after the siege of Boston. His 
mother was Hannah Goddard (born Sever), whose name 
honors one of the Brookline chapters of the D. A. R. 

A sketch of John and Hannah Goddard by Rev. 
Wm. H. Lyon at one time read before the Brookline His- 
torical Society and since printed is well worth reading more 
than once. 

"Summer street," where Benjamin and Mrs. G. dined, 
was the house of his brother Nathaniel, and it was where he 
visited most frequently. The relation between the brothers 
was affectionate and intimate, and the families were together 
as often as possible. The house stood at the southwest 
corner of Summer and Kingston streets on land purchased in 
1802. The house was built in 1807, and Nathaniel lived in it 
for nearly forty years. It was three stories in height, of light- 
colored Philadelphia brick, and stood on a high bank about 
12 to 15 feet back from Summer street and with a grass plot 
in front. 

1815, Monday, March 13. 

Commenced with snow from the So. East and continued 
all the forenoon, but little continued on the ground as it was 
wet and the weather moderate. Myself and man at home; — 
he assorting potatoes, myself transcribing a genealogical 
account of the Goddard Family in my Fathers Bible from the 
first that came from England down to the present day. 
Afternoon reading "Nelson's Life" — finished it, — 
The loss of him to his country is inestimable: his plans and 
the execution of them almost always insured success. It 
seemed that the Battle of the Nile could not be outdone till 
the one at Copenhagen, but that at Trafalgar, where he died, 
ended in the brightest blaze of glory. 

The Goddard family originated in America in 1666, when 
William, a merchant of the Grocer's company, came to Bos- 
ton, the year of the great plague. Later, Joseph, the second 
son of William, settled in Watertown and then in Brookline 
on what is now Goddard avenue. That property descended 
from father to son until John and Hannah Goddard lived 
there and reared their family. In 1785 or thereabouts, John 



i 



19 

transferred that homestead to his son Joseph and removed 
to the Deacon Gardner estate, which he purchased, and on a 
part of which his son Benjamin built his house in 1810-1811. 

The old Gardner house, purchased by John Go^dard, 
stood on the curve of the old Sherborn road where it came 
down from the meeting house to skirt the meadow which later 
became the site of the present Boylston street reservoir in 
1845. 

When the Worcester Turnpike was built in 1806 it followed 
a straight line from the house and store of Thomas White 
opposite Punch Bowl Tavern, (now Guild's Corner), directly 
over Walley's Hill till it struck the old road in front of John 
Goddard's estate. From there to Acker's Corner the old road 
was absorbed into the Turnpike, but at the last named point 
the new and the old roads parted company, the Turnpike con- 
tinuing by compass over the hill to Richard's Tavern and 
beyond to Newton and other towns to Worcester, and thence 
to New York. Living on the Turnpike, with all the stage 
travel passing to and fro between Boston and Worcester 
and beyond — a member of a large family, prominent in the 
church and personally popular in the community, fond of 
young company, with no children in his own family but 
making a home for those of others, his household was 
seldom without guests or visitors, regular or transient, and 
the neighbors and friends passing by usually stopped for a few 
minutes' chat. All such, however, were given a place in the 
journal if their call gave the least warrant for mentioning the 
fact. 

It would be interesting to quote from this diary at length, 
but extracts only must suffice at this time and these extracts 
will be from the diary for the years 1812 to 1820. 

What shall be the extracts from this journal of one hundred 
years ago written here in Brookline with the old-fashioned 
goose-quill, before the days of steel pens, of automobiles, 
steam trains and trolley cars; when the telephone and tele- 
graph were undreamed of and the communication by mail 
was by stage coach or courier; when there were no electric 
lights, no gas lights, no kerosene lamps even, and the candle 
gave brilliant illumination for all functions; when the 
wood lot was the source of fuel supply for the great 



20 

fireplaces, the brick ovens, or the Rumford heater in 
those days before steam heat and janitor service, before the 
furnace and the chore-man? It was not until 1818 that 
the journalist got up the subscription to pay for the stoves 
in the meeting house, and it was a year laterwhen Mr. Stone, 
the handy mechanic, made a fireboard for his mother's chamber. 
The next year a sheet iron stop was fitted in room of the 
chimney board previously put in. Those were the days when 
the farmer in Brookline carried his grain to the mill, and when 
the saw-mill, which was at the outlet of Saw Mill Brook 
Valley, furnished timber and lumber for local consumption. 

Shall the journalist tell you when he reads "Locke on Chris- 
tianity," or shall I quote his comments on "Scottish Chiefs," 
"Paul and Virginia," "Boswell's Johnson," "Elizabeth the 
Exile of Siberia," "History of the Egyptians," or "Walter 
Scott's Waterloo"? 

Do you want to know his criticisms of the President's Mes- 
sages, the mysteries of sausage making, how the young singers 
performed for the first time in the meeting house, or all 
about that cold Tuesday when the vinegar froze in the parlor 
closet, and the bay was frozen to Long Island? 

It might interest you to know that his nieces rode out 
from Boston "gallanted" by their equestrian teacher, that 
Brother Nathaniel came in his chaise usually, but sometimes 
in the stage, and that it was no uncommon thing for the 
young people to walk, or perhaps "take the Old Mare." 

The records are in detail in regard to family weighings, 
and it is stated whether the weights are taken before or after 
dinner. When the brook, called the "Danube," overflowed 
the Turnpike is noted, when he sold the fat cow, and when the 
young people danced, sang and played games until eleven 
o'clock and spent the evening in a rational manner. 

Would you go to the dentist's with Mrs. G. a visit 
she bore with bravery and fortitude? Would you call at 
Brother Joseph's the day when he fell from a tree and broke 
a rib, for which he was let blood? Would you recommend 
blistering Johnson for the rheumatism, or would you prefer 
to sit with Benjamin himself for a number of days when he 
had a lame foot and read many chapters in the Book of Job 
for consolation? 



21 

Would you like to read the full and explicit directions to 
his hired man about the care of cattle and horses, so that they 
should be well fed but not wastefully, remembering that this 
hired man had been engaged for $13 per month, he to attend 
meeting and furnish his own spirit, or would you rather spend 
an evening in an easy social way that always affords the most 
enjoyment? 

Do you want to know the value of his real estate in Bos- 
ton, of how much it cost to cut, cure and house salt hay from 
the marsh, of the shipment of five hundred barrels of flour by 
the "Ariadne" to Southern Europe, or are you more interested 
to know when the first asparagus went to market? 

Some might be interested to attend the inauguration of 
the venerable and excellent Governor Strong. Others would 
prefer to attend the political conventions at Faneuil Hall. 
A few would accompany him to the cellar where he bottled 
porter and caught cold, while the young ladies would do 
now as they did then, go to the commencement exercises at 
Cambridge on purpose to be gallanted home by the young 
men. 

You would perhaps like to hear about various wedding 
festivities and you would all sympathize when "self and Mrs. 
G." go here and there "a girl hunting" after having dis- 
charged Betsy Wilkins and there was no kitchen help for sev- 
eral weeks. 

You would enjoy the evening when the schoolmaster called 
or that other evening when they talked politics and sang, 
accompanied by the piano (1812). 

You would perhaps notice the coincidence that company 
was not wanted in hay time, and that the bedrooms were not 
offered to undesirable visitors, and it would certainly amuse 
you to learn that in 1813 a newly married couple, according 
to a recent custom, went on a journey to avoid the speech of 
people. 

In those days he paid his taxes to Constable Bradley, and 
after a town election the Selectmen, some of the principal 
other officers, Mr. Pierce, Mr. Heath and the journalist, 
usually had supper or took tea at the home of some one of the 
parties mentioned. 

On November 29, 1814, there was an earthquake, and on 



22 

February 7, 1815, which was Shrove Tuesday, they ate pan- 
cakes and baked beans. 

Shall he tell you about the evening when they had no com- 
pany but their own family, "who were tranquil and appar- 
ently happy," or that other evening when they had a ball and 
the company left before eleven o'clock "all tolerable well"? 

You might like to know when Louisa made her debut at 
the singing school or about that other occasion when the young 
singers in the choir were promoted to seats in the meeting 
house. 

On September 3, 1818, "Joseph Goddard came at nine 
o'clock. He walked from Boston. Stayed the night. He 
brought the information that the famous Sea Serpent was 
caught." 

The diarist went to the Brighton Cattle Show and was a 
judge at the ploughing contest, he attended the Ecclesiasti- 
cal Council at Dedham, and took preserved roses to Mr. 
Woodward's to be distilled. 

One stormy night "Old Borealis roared most horrible"; 
another night "Old Borealis played briskly on his harp." 

On January 20, 1818, he tells about the subscription for 
the shares of the Roxbury Mill Corporation for the build- 
ing of the mill dam from Beacon street to Sewall's point with 
branch road to Punch Bowl Village, and two years later 
(July 14, 1820) he "rode over the new road from Brighton 
and visited the works of the Mill Dam Corporation." 

He read the "Vicar of Wakefield" in February, 1819, and 
his comment is, "Poor fellow, he had a life of trial." The 
girls had a company of their friends in Brookline and they all 
danced a little with homespun musick." 

On January 23, 1819, "Read trial of the pirates for Murder 
of Capt, Mate & Supercargo of Schooner Platsburg." 

On February 18, 1819, "William gone to see the Pirates 
(Williams, Peterson, Rog and Frederick) hanged — their 
execution was upon Boston Neck back of the burying ground. 
Mr. Heath, one of the spectators informed that the con- 
course of people was immense, he should think nearly or quite 
forty thousand persons." 

In March, 1820, he notes that "Missouri is admitted as a State 
without restricting slavery." In December he notes, "Mrs. G. 



23 

with George Goddard to Boston to pass a few days in search 
of happiness. Self at home enjoying it." 

In 1818 (March 31) he prepared the things at the "Old 
House" for an auction, which took place the day following 
and then he attended to the delivering of the things sold at 
the auction. 

He inscribes a very touching obituary in memory of the 
Old Mare. On the same day he goes to Sherborn and "buys 
apple trees to be transplanted for the benefit of the next 
generation." 

On November 30, 1820, he dined at Captain Holland's, 
"where attended the distinguished guest President Adams at 
85 years of age," and on March 20, 1821, he says: "This day 
completes the fifty-fifth anniversary of my pilgrimage. This 
memo, is made in order to keep pace with time." 

At a time of sorrow, and when many visitors are men- 
tioned, he says, "on the whole much more company than was 
desirable, but their visits were friendly intended. To reflect 
requires retirement." 

Everything of any importance is noted, from the number of 
bushels of barley per acre to the disproving of the supersti- 
tion that the pork of swine slaughtered on the decrease of 
the moon is not so good as if otherwise. Fruit trees were 
"washed with brine to kill insects" and the doctor prescribed 
"moderate medicine" in a case of illness. A "Nahant party" 
was postponed on account of bad weather, but on a certain 
Sabbath "the attendance at the meeting house was small, 
many having gone to the marsh to save hay from expected 
high tides, it being a work of necessity and mercy." He served 
on the grand jury, subscribed to the Peace Society and Cam- 
bridge Theological Institute, was glad that election came but 
twice a year, and in all ways was a most satisfactory journalist. 

A considerable portion of his journal for the early months 
of the year 1812 is devoted to the very decided opinions he 
held in regard to the non-advisability of hostilities with Eng- 
land. He had been and continued to be interested with his 
Brother Nathaniel in commercial ventures and the mer- 
chants of Boston did not want war. 

It would be interesting to read all of his chronicles on this 
topic, but a few will very well illustrate the manner in which 



24 

he expresses to his confidential friend — his journal — his very 
positive convictions. 

1812, Saturday, January 11. 

Read the Newspaper — the Governor's speech to the 
Legislature. The old man seems to attribute all our evils to 
the conduct of the British nation and the individuals of that 
nation. — Charges the King, the Prince Regent and the 
people with crimes horrible, — attributes the divisions among 
the American people to the British, — thinks nothing of the 
effect of his own conduct after having, since the last session, 
removed all those who were of the party politically opposed 
to him that were within his power and appointed sixteen 
out of twenty-one of the Jacobin Senators to office; all 
this, and too much more now to name, has no tendency to 
keep alive party, — No! the British! the British! not a 
word about Bonaparte's injustice, only that a part of the 
difficulties with him are settled, and the remainder in a train 
but not a word of indemnity for the Millions he has plundered. 

On the whole this speech is a miserable production of a 
miserable old man. 

1812, Sabbath, January 12. 

Cold — moderates a little in the afternoon and begins to 
snow. Family principally attended meeting. Mr. Pierce 
preached from 2d Corinthians 5th Chapter 7th Verse — "For 
we walk by faith, not by sight." — Both sermons from this 
text. 

Visited in the evening by General Gardner, his brother, 
and Mr. Heath, Mr. Brooks and Mr. Prentice. 

Conversed on Politics and sundries. Sang a few tunes. 
The time passed socially and pleasant." 

1812, January 21. 

Tuesday, cold without abatement — Windy and tedious, 
but a clear sun. Townsend to the woods twice. Self at home 
reading some — visiting at the old house — played battledore 

— read newspaper — the answer to Gov. Gerry's speech, etc. 

— The answer to the speech is in some degree an echo to it, 
representing the atrocious conduct of the British in capturing 
the American Property and retaining her sailors, etc. to the 
most exaggerated extreme and far beyond the truth, not even 
mentioning the conduct of the French although they know 
their depredations exceed the former without proportion. All 
this evidently for the purpose of raising and continuing a 
prejudice against the British nation, not because this nation 
is more unfriendly than France, but for the purpose of con- 



25 

tinuing the prejudices of the People against England. Why 
is this the conduct of our Rulers? The answer is because this 
prejudice against England has a tendency to support the 
party in power more than any other expedient, as the truth, 
if known and understood by the people would oust from office 
and power and profit all those who have plundered the 
People of those men who have done and would continue to 
act for the good of the country. 

1812, January 29. 

Evening had a visit from Bro. Joseph and his two daughters. 
Talked politics, canvassed the conduct of our present rulers, 
but the time was spent unprofitably while on that subject, 
for, unfortunately, we could not agree in the main, so we 
neither of us were convinced nor converted. 

1812, March 4. 

Wednesday. Fine clear weather. Townsend and self at 
home. Forenoon made a long visit at the other house, — met 
there Bro. Joseph, — talked politics, time spent unprofitably. 
— Afternoon came Miss Warrens with Miss Burroughs — 
made a short stay and drank Tea. Evening at home, played 
cards, talked about matrimony — went to bed. 

1812, January 30. 

Thursday — Moderate — Wind N. E. Rained in the 
morning — froze upon the trees. Townsend at home preparing 
wood for the fire. Self at home — made a visit of two hours 
at our Parents. Read to them the newspaper, — particularly 
the Secretary of the Treasury of the U. S. statement of the 
ways and means to provide funds for a war establishment 
which afforded convinsive proof of the folly of the government 
in pursuing measures tending to such a state of things — But 
President Madison having said the Berlin and Milan Decrees 
were revoked and the other branches of Government thinking 
it the best policy to lie it out, have got the affairs of the nation 
in such a scrape as will require the enlightened wisdom of the 
Federalists to get them out. So much for electing Jackanapes 
to rule over us. These very same Jackanapes and their 
dupes were the very men under the Federal Administration 
who clamored aloud against the Taxes on lands, on domestic 
spirits, carriages and stamp duty, but now nearly twice as great 
a tax of the same denomination can be laid but it is believed 
not without opening the eyes of their dupes. Such men must 
be removed or the country ruined. 

1812, June 13. 

Read newspaper which breathes much of war. 



26 

1812, June 15. 

Self to Boston, attended Town Meeting where they 
passed resolutions expressive of their disapprobation of the 
measures of government tending to war, etc. Considerable 
debate upon the situation of our public affairs was had. 

1812, June 23. 

A Declaration of War arrived in Boston which has filled 
every one with astonishment at this madness of our Mis- 
Rulers. This calamity to our country is not yet to be con- 
ceived of, time only will unfold what is to be the results. 

1812, June 25. 

Read the Chronicle — the Manifesto, or Report of the 
Committee of Foreign Relations to the House recommending 
War, in which our Country is now involved, but have received 
no conviction, after reading this which has made the most 
of every wrong that language could describe (allowing even 
the whole to be true) that it is expedient or in any wise prudent 
at the present time to go to war with Great Britain. It is 
madness which has produced this alternative which will be 
ruinous to many of our fellow Citizens. 

1812, June 30. 

Self to Boston via Cambridgeport. Found the People 
sober and dull by the prospect before them. 

1812, July 4. 

Saturday. This is the anniversary of the Independence of 
the United States, but, disgraced as we are by a Corrupt 
Administration, it is doubtful in the minds of many, whether 
it will long prove a blessing. — If we are to be under a foreign 
yoke the British ought to have the preference but we yet hold 
up a right for our Independence. 

1812, July 15. 

Self to Boston. Attended a meeting of the inhabitants 
animated and spirited. Debate was had by Messrs. Sargent, 
Quincy, Whitman & Otis. Resolves passed showing the 
determined Spirit of the people, etc. 

1812, Thursday, July 23. 

Fast Day appointed by our Excellent Governor Strong, 
that the People may atone for their sins in electing over them 
rulers without Honesty or knowledge, men neither fearing 
God or who have any love for their country. — 



27 

1812, Thursday, August 20. 

This day was appointed by the President to be observed 
in fasting and prayer. If the People have duly observed it, 
and their Prayers are heard and answered, we need not doubt; 
for they will be guided to place Rulers in their Councils, who 
fear God and love their Country. If this can be our happy 
lot, we may again be restored to peace; and if this day has 
been suitably observed we hesitate not in saying that among 
the many Wicked and destructive deeds of the President he 
has done one that may be of some benefit to the Nation. 

Our family (excepting necessary Domestics at home) 
attended meeting all day. Mr. Gray in the morning, Mr. 
Pierce afternoon; meeting rather thin, owing to considerable 
number of the inhabitants being necessarily engaged on the 
Marsh securing their hay from expected high tides. After 
meeting in the evening myself and Mrs. G. to Boston made a 
short visit and drank Tea at Bro. Nathaniels, found all well 
and in good spirits. On our way we passed a company of 
Madison's soldiers (Commanded by one Tuttle) which were 
taken from the garrison of Fort Warren (this fort is one of the 
Principle places calculated to defend the town of Boston) and 
were on their March to join Gen'l Dearborn's army at the 
Northwest, destined against Canada; So that one of the prin- 
cipal Maritime Seaports, the only vulnerable places for the 
enemy, is deprived of its defence, and for what? Why, surely, 
to fight against our poor harmless Neighbors, insulated (?) 
from the ocean, and who had no more to do with the pretended 
or real causes of the War than the inhabitants of the interior 
of China (Oh Madison and the Devil! ! !) 

1812, Sabbath, August 30. 

Joseph Goddard called in after meeting; brought us an 
account of the capture and destruction of the British Frigate 
Guerriere by Capt. Decres, by the American Frigate the 
Constitution, Capt. Hull, after 25 minutes hard fighting. 

1812, Monday, August 31. 

Myself to Boston, did but little business, found the People 
much elated at the success of the American Navy, — and 
that Commander Rodgers with his squadron had returned 
in Boston Harbor without being injured, after a cruise of 
two months. This squadron has done but little. — Capt. 
Hull has done honor to his country. 

1812, Tuesday, September 1. 

Heard of the arrival of Mr. Smith's ship "Packet" from 
Liverpool with goods, and Gallatin's orders to have them 
seized with all that may arrive. 



28 

1812, Wednesday, September 2. 

Accounts of the Capture of General Hull and Army at 
Detroit. No tears on this occasion as no blood was spilt. 

1812, Thursday, October 22. 

Myself to Dedham to meet in Caucus to agree on a candidate 
to Congress in place of that disgusting Seaver. — Nath'l 
Ruggles, Esq. of Roxbury having been agreed upon by a part 
of those persons of the Republican Party styling themselves 
friends of Peace and Commerce and a Navy, — and the 
Federalists seeing no prospect of electing one of their own 
number and confiding in the integrity of Mr. Ruggles and 
believing he will support principles coincident generally with 
theirs, have agreed to support him, in conjunction with those 
who have nominated him. 

1812, November 3. 

Evg Called Mr. Heath a few minutes Mr. Barry & Doct'r 
Stebbins — congratulated each other on the result of the 
Election, — it being in favor of the Federal or Peace candidate. 

1812, November 4. 

To Boston — Waited on Richard Sullivan on Business of 
the Town relating to moving the School house.* Found many 
pleasant faces occasioned by the results of the Federal Elec- 
tions for Representatives in Congress in several districts etc. 

1812, November 5. 

Splendid accounts of the elections in different parts of the 
state — Democracy is flat on her back at present — may she 
sleep quietly till Doomsday. 

1812, Monday, November 2. 

Myself engaged at the election poll — The result in this 
Town not so good as was expected, yet it exhibited a favorable 
change. Votes for federal Representative as follows — Mr. 
Ruggles 64 — Seaver 59 — Howe 4 — favorable accounts from 
Roxbury — we hope for success. 

1812, Sabbath, November 8. 

Read the Presidents message to Congress — it recommends 
a continuance of war and upon the whole it is calculated 
to deceive those who have heretofore believed in his measures, 
yet sufficiently shows his cloven foot to others who have 



♦NOTE: This was the old brick school house which stood in the triangle, 
corner Walnut and Warren streets. 



29 

always been on the watch believing him to be in the French 
interest. Nothing but a removal of this man from ofifice will 
save this country; if the People support his measures it will 
be principally done by those who inhabit the Southern States, 
and will eventually (though under other circumstances much 
to be deprecated) cause a division of the States — The speech 
shows a pertinacity in measures and demands that cannot 
be conceded by the British Government, and will not is well 
known, although they have in all the points that materially 
affect the interests of America shown a sufficient disposition 
to conciliate and settle the differences, but for want of a cor- 
respondent disposition on the part of our Administration 
particularly the President, we are suffering in the Horrors of 
War. 

1812, Thursday, November 12. 

Afternoon entirely at Election of Electors for President 
and Vice President. Votes in this town 
for the Peace Ticket 65. 
for the War Ticket 52. 

1812, Wednesday, December 2. 

This day the Electors in the several States have met and 
given in their Votes for President and Vice President. In 
Massachusetts there are twenty two Electors. All of them 
have voted for Mr. Clinton for President. Two for Mr. 
Gerry and Twenty for Jared Ingersol of Pennsylvania for 
Vice President. 

1812, Monday, December 7. 

In the evening read the debates in Congress upon a bill 
before them to encourage the Recruiting Service, which 
provided that it should be lawful for Apprentices and Minors 
to enlist at the age of eighteen notwithstanding any obligation 
they were under to their Parents Masters or Guardians. The 
Bill in this form was advocated by those corrupt men who com- 
pose the majority of Congress that made the War and it was 
there carried without amendment by a large majority but 
afterward underwent an amendment in the Senate. 

1813, Thursday, February 18. 

Myself with Mehitable to Boston were present at the parade 
in honor of Commodore Bainbridge on his arrival from a 
cruize in which he fought took and destroyed the British 
Frigate Java of 49 guns but rated a 38 full manned with 400 
men. We are pleased with the heroic Conduct of our Naval 
Officers and men, and them only would we honor on these 



30 

occasions detesting the authors of such unnecessary carnage — 
our War making administration. 

1813, Monday, March 8. 

Afternoon attended the election of Town Officers, which 
was the first March meeting I have attended since I have been 
an inhabitant here. — The object of the Federalists on this 
occasion was to conciliate, with a view to bring the minds 
of their opponents to a state susceptible of reason, to effect 
which it was determined that they would vote for the same 
town officers who had served the last year, all of whom were 
then voted for and chosen by said opponents. 

They expected their intentions for uniting would be met in 
some measure with correspondent views and feelings and that 
there would be a united vote on this occasion, but at the close 
of the poll, to the astonishment of those who had a right to 
expect better things, it came out for the first time that a 
secret plan had been laid for a considerable time and pursued, 
to innovate upon the Board of Selectmen, and instead of 
Joseph Goddard Esq. to place Capt. Joshua Clark, merely 
because the former had dared with some degree of Indepen- 
dence to avow his disapprobation of the conduct of our 
National Administration in declaring a ruinous War. 

The Federalists, though they were pretty generally in the 
way of their duty, being ignorant of any design, were many of 
them absent — notwithstanding which, the Election resulted 
in a discomfiture of their opponents by the election of Mr. 
Goddard by a majority of one: this will be a good lesson for 
the future not to trust to the goodness of their cause, and it 
will teach us that we are not to expect any magnanimity from 
Jacobins. 

1813, Wednesday, June 2. 

This day we have the account of the capture of the U. S. 
Ship the Chesapeake by the British Ship Shannon. The 
action was at about six o'clock last evening in presence of 
many spectators who went down for the purpose. The 
scene was about 9 leagues from the light-house — Action 
lasted about 20 minutes from the firing of the first gun. 

1813, August 21. 

Bro. William arrived with his wife and family and household 
furniture excepting the chief of it which was taken on its 
way by a British privateer. 

1814, January 1. 

This year commences with pleasant weather — but the 
Political horizon is as blackness and darkness. The Nation 



31 

at war; the inhabitants on the frontiers both on the American 
and the British lines suffering by the greatest cruelty, deves- 
tation of their dwellings and property by fire, driven from their 
homes and scattered in the Wilderness, among the Savages, 
White and Yellow. The commerce of the Whole country 
anihilated, burthensome taxes on all classes of citizens and a 
sure prospect of an increase of this evil. Public credit sinking; 
an enormous public debt accumulating Morals of the people 
sinking by disrespect to the laws: Smuggling encouraged by a 
Bounty in enormous prices & enormous duties on Merchan- 
dise. All these and many others are sacrifices without any 
advantages gained, or the least prospect of any — but these 
are National punishments justly inflicted so long as the 
People will elect base men to rule over them. It is to be hoped 
that the end of this year will present a different Aspect. 

1814, January 6. 

Spent the evening at Brother Nathaniels in company with 
family connections — found great agitation in the Commercial 
world caused by some appearances favorable to Peace, — goods 
much fallen and speculators greatly affrighted. 

1814, September 3. 

Myself to Boston. Attended Town Meeting the object to 
see if the Town would do anything towards fortifying the 
Town. The business was finally left with the Governor & 
Council with assurances of assistance if wanted. 

1814, September 8. 

Myself to Boston — found the Town in considerable alarm 
for its safety the British being actively engaged in capturing 
sea posts. 

1814, September 9. 

In the afternoon Bro. Joseph Goddard and Wm. Aspinwall 
called to notify me as one of the exempts from Military duty 
to meet and form a company in this town to Volunteer our 
services in case of an attack from the enemy. 

1814, September 13. 

Agreeable to request of a number of the inhabitants a 
meeting of those persons who are exempted from Military 
duty was had in the afternoon consisting of about thirty 
persons who agreed to form themselves into a company choose 
their officers and to equip themselves for any emergency that 
may require their services. Officers elected were 
Gen'l Isaac S.Gardner Captain 



32 

Maj'r John Robinson Lieutenant 

Capt. Jos. Goddard 2d Lieutenant 

to whom was committed the appointment of the subordinate 

officers — After a short time they nominated 

Mr. Jones 

Deac'n Clark 

Capt. Stearns 

Mr. Hammond 

who were appointed. The Company then agreed to meet 

with arms and accoutrements next Friday precisely at 4 

o'clock P. M. 

After having made the Military arrangements the members 
present fired with Patriotism agreed also to ofTer their services 
in Labor or Money in aid of building the Fort on Noddles 
Island for the defense of Boston. 

Chozen a Committee Viz Mr. Laughton — Aspinwall — 
White at the Lower part of the Town, Messrs. Murdoch, 
Heath, Hammond and Craft for the upper part of the Town, — 
to solicit subscriptions for the object and present the service 
to the Superintendent — Great unanimity prevailed through- 
out the whole. 

1814, September 15. 

Myself with Ann Goddard to Boston. Found the Town filled 
with Troops some of which (the Militia men to be sure) made 
rather a ludicrous appearance others looked like Soldiers; 
they all had legs, which they will find useful on the approach 
of the enemy. No great dependence can be put on so rude a 
mass of Creatures. Was it not for some companies of fine 
well disciplined troops, added to the many Independent 
Companies in Boston who have spared no pains nor expense 
to qualify themselves for service, we might despair of defend- 
ing our Country. 

1814, January 14. 

Read Gov. Strongs speech to both houses of the Legislature 
delivered yesterday. In it the same steady well digested 
opinions of the injustice of the war are strongly marked as 
heretofore. Had we him at the head of our National Govern- 
ment we might be soon restored to Peace and Happiness, 
but we must wait, when the iniquities of the people are suffi- 
ciently punished then we may hope a restoration of good 
men in our National Councils. 

1814, March 14. 

Election of Town Officers — The Federal Ticket prevailed 
by a majority never known in the Town 
60 Votes for Federal Selectmen. 
30 Votes for Democratic Selectmen. 



33 



1814, December 7. 

In the afternoon to Town Meeting where a proposition 
was made for the Town to raise money to pay the Soldiers 
in addition to their Government pay. On examination it 
appeared a tax of that kind by the Town would be illegal, 
the question was therefore abandoned by the Town and the 
citizens present agreed to raise $320 to be apportioned among 
them, the soldiers 26 in number, their services having been 
about 23^ months for which they received $8 per mo. of the 
U. S. — the same to be assessed on the Real & Personal estate 
of the Town leaving it optional with the owners. The result, 
if all is collected, will amount to $12.30 to each man, which will 
when added to the Gov't pay amount to $12.92 per mo. 

1815, Sabbath, January 1. 

This year begins with awful prospects to our Country. The 
Nation continuing in war with the same base administration 
that produced it, who have continued their perfidious 
course till the Treasury is entirely drained and the Nation 
Bankrupt, and totally destitute of credit — payment 
refused to all Creditors except in a species of Treasury 
Notes called Exchequer Bills which are at this time 27% dis- 
count and depreciating: Taxes increasing and Multiplying 
on the Necessaries of life. Commerce entirely destroyed. 
Manufactures depressed by loading taxes, Laboring people 
without employ begging for subsistence — the prospect before 
us is dark indeed. Whoever lives to see the end of this war 
will for many years, if life is spared, be reminded of the 
Perfidy of the Rulers who reigned at the time it was brought 
on this Country. 

1815, Monday, February 13. 

This is a day of Jubilee. 

Tidings of peace have reached our shores. On Saturday an 
English dispatch vessel arrived at New York with the Glorious 
News which was by express conveyed to Boston in thirty 
hours, and arrived at 8 o'clock this morning. Let all the 
People shout aloud for Joy. God is our King, Amen. 

1815, Wednesday, February 22. 

Myself with Lucretia Goddard and Mehitable to Boston 
being a day of great parade there. A procession passed through 
the several streets of Mechanics of the different Crafts with 
their badges of professions — they made a motley show, but 
perhaps suited to the occasion. They looked like impoverished 
men, as no doubt they really were, by the Cruel outrageous 



34 

war in which they were plunged by the Barbarous adminis- 
tration, but their countenances were enHvened and cheerful 
at the return of peace, although they are in poverty. — We 
dined at Bro. Nathaniel's and returned home to tea — there 
were many illuminations in Boston, — more perhaps, and 
more elegant, than on any former occasion. 

Mr. Goddard was not a man of war, nor was he skilled in the 
arts and architecture. Rather he was a man of peace, experi- 
enced in trade and versed in the secrets and mysteries of 
agriculture. He was fond of literature and was a lover of 
nature in all her moods and seasons. He was one who found 
enjoyment in the tilling of the soil and contentment in the 
fruits thereof, whose desire was to deserve the respect and 
esteem of his neighbors and whose greatest pleasures were 
found in the loving family circle of his own home. 

1812, February 13. 

Clear sun — weather a little moderated. Townsend at 
home assisting Capt. Stearns in shoeing sled in the forenoon. 
Afternoon to Newton for load of pine wood. Went myself 
and helped cut and load it — travelling bad — brought but 
part of a load and determined not to go again till more snow. 

Evening at home. Gen'l Gardner and Mr. Heath called 
and invited us to go to Singing school with them, but having 
just unbooted, and not having been shaved for many days, 
and being a little fatigued from my jaunt in the woods, I 
declined going this evening but sat by the fire with wife, like 
Darby & Joan — smoked a segar, then read a number of 
Cowpers letters, which was a pleasing employment about 
an hour, then finished the evening by writing this memoir. 

Some evenings the family entertained company or in turn 
visited the neighbors or friends. Other evenings the family 
were by themselves. No matter what the entertainment, 
it was duly chronicled in some such way as the following 
examples : — 

1812, January 19. 

Evening sang, talked, and as usual the evening passed 
agreeably, and it is hoped not altogether uselessly. 

1812, February 2. 

No company at home but our own family who were tranquil 
and apparently happy. 



35 

1812, February 7. 

Sang and danced for amusement of parents and children. 

1812, February 29. 

Evening at Capt. Jos. Williams — the time was occupied 
in conversation and cards and ended with a supper of 
Roast Turkey and Beefsteak — our reception was cordial — 
returned home with speed at 10 o'clock by the light of the 
moon. 

1812, March 8. 
Talked politics and sang, accompanied by the piano. 

1812, January 3. 

The Evg. till eight visiting at the old house, conversation 
principally upon Agriculture, of its usefulness and importance 
to the country, not lessening the necessity and usefulness of 
commerce, — agreeing to the necessity of supporting both 
that neither should suffer. Read Boswells Life of Johnson 
about an hour, — the company and myself being rather dull 
and sleepy laid it aside — so ended this day. 

1812, January 5. 

Sang Psalmody in the evening conversed upon various 
topics such as Politics, Singing, Agriculture, etc. 

1812, January 7. 

The diary this day gives a complete description of the con- 
struction of the new Craigie Bridge and concludes with this 
observation : — 

The reader will pardon me for this digression it is hoped 
when he or she is told that I have not much of great impor- 
tance to relate of this day and this may be of some use to those 
who may be so unfortunate as to be concerned in bridges. 

1812, March 26. 

Company at Tea — played cards and had speculative con- 
versation. 

1813, January 21. 

Evg. to Mr. Walleys — forty or fifty were there, principally 
Brookliners; — a fiddler was provided and the company 
principally danced to a late hour. Generous and handsome 
provision was made, — the entertainment and amusement 
was well suited to the company and gave much pleasure. 



36 

1812, February 14. 

Heard the rain beat plentifully against the windows — are 
glad we are at home. 

1813, Sabbath, March 28. 

No company from Boston — none to dine and for a rarity 
none in the evening — it being very rainy and the travelling 
very bad. 

1813, September 5. 

We sang and spent the evening rationally. 

1813, January 3. 
Spent the evening reading good books. 

1813, January 29. 

Stormy — dined in Boston — came home in snow squall 
but arrived in short time safe by the fireside at home, — there 
enjoyed the evening in tranquility and happiness. 

1815, March 29. 

To Mr. Crafts in Roxbury to a splendid ball composed 
from that town & Brookline wh. some from Boston & Cam- 
bridgeport. About 60 the whole number — Stayed quite 
too late having but one hack for this neighborhood. Brought 
the last home about 5 o'clock! ! ! ! ! 

1814, December 28. 

Evg — a young company who were much disposed to dance. 

1815, February 21. 

This day being the anniversary of the birth of Washington 
the Great, and having also received Intelligence of the Ratifi- 
cation of the Treaty of Peace by the President, we celebrate 
it by Music and dancing. 

1821, December 19. 

Evg. wh. Mrs. G. and Louisa to Mr. Heaths. Met there a 
company mostly of the younger class. The gathering was to 
compliment Miss Abbott who is in town. Such meetings are 
useful occasionally, but too many of them would be a waste 
of time. Relaxation from business and study to cultivate 
social feelings and an interest in society are necessary and 
proper, if under suitable restraint. 

Benjamin Goddard lived his boyhood on the homestead 
farm on Goddard avenue. His brother Nathaniel, who was 
a year younger, and in later life became one of the leading 



37 

merchants of Boston, wrote a narrative of his early Hfe for 
the benefit of his grandchildren, and a short extract from that 
narrative gives much of interest. 

The family increased to twelve sons and three daughters 
with but little of this world's goods, located on a farm naturally 
bare and hard to cultivate, requiring much labor to produce 
even the necessaries of life, for of luxuries they were contented 
with very few even when they sought for any. On this little 
farm, naturally rough and hard to till, the income from which 
was of course small, every man woman and child was obliged 
to work and to fare hard ; by the time they were six years old 
there was found work enough for them to do both summer 
and winter. . . . 

In those days they baked their own bread, brewed their 
own beer, made their own soap, did all their own sewing, 
except making some new garments, knit their own stockings, 
if they had any, and often spun the yarn, made the cloth for 
their shirts and sheets and even pocket handkerchiefs, except- 
ing in all cases the weaving and sometimes taking a spinster 
into the house. 

At about four years of age I was sent in the summer to 
a school kept by a female about a mile to the westward of 
our dwelling. — we had such books as were generally used in 
the country schools of that day, to wit: a primer, Dilworth's 
spelling book, a Bible, or in lieu of it a Psalter and the New 
Testament. The latter books were not used until we had 
made some proficiency in learning, for he who could read in 
the Bible with "a good tone" was much of a Scholar. . 

As we got older we went to a school where there was a male 
teacher. 

Sometimes we had masters from Cambridge and sometimes 
we were taught by a Brookline farmer named Stephen Sharp, 
a good honest old fashioned man who could read in the Bible 
and write "joining hand." 



Our father allowed us another privilege — to wit — one 
holiday in the year, which was Election Day — but if we 
would work half that day he would give us for it a whole day 
after harvesting was over. 

We were also allowed a small piece of land for a garden 
where we might, by stealing time enough, cultivate a few 
things to sell such as sage, wormwood, roots, cives, balm, etc. 

Our father kept fowls and each one who wished had a hen 
for himself, or rather a part of the produce of one. — We to 



38 

see they were fed, the eggs collected, the chickens taken care 
of. — When the hen set once a year — we to have half the 
brood of chickens when fit for market — father having the 
other half and the feathers. 

Another perquisite Benjamin and I had alternately was 
that of taking care of and fattening the hogs, as a remunera- 
tion for which we had the bladders when the hogs were 
killed. 



Benjamin had left Brookline 1887, having broken loose 
from the farming business and gone to Boston to the store of 
Messrs. William and Josiah Brown, gentlemen of honor and 
high standing, and lived with the junior partner, Josiah 
Brown, until he was of age. 

A little after Daniel Shays rebellion (1788) Brother Benja- 
min had commenced business by the assistance of our father 
and Mr. John Lucas. Mr. John Lucas had assisted a former 
assistant to a store but partly through incapability or negli- 
gence and perhaps more from the dreadful distress of the 
times, it was not successful so that Mr. Lucas finally attached 
all the property and finally came into possession of it — the 
stock consisted mostly of remnants, and of spirits and other 
West India goods, etc. 

What sum my father furnished him I never knew but I 
believe a hundred pounds. 

To those interested in the manners and customs, the life, 
the thoughts and the activities of a prominent Brookline 
family in the first quarter of the last century, the diary of 
Benjamin Goddard is a treasure house of information. He 
does not limit his observations to local events, but he reads 
the papers, he is identified with the business interests of 
Boston, he comments on politics, religion and the domestic 
arts. It is to be hoped that this diary may some time be 
edited and printed in full, but for the present a few extracts 
will show the range of his observations and the care with 
which he records them. 

1812, January 14 & 15. 

Assisted in killing a hog — a noble fellow — wg 402 lbs. 

Cut up the said hog — separated the parts — for salting, 
for sausages, for bacon, for lard, for souce, for steaks, for 
roasting, etc., and for lard, besides the rind for sore feet and 
refining coffee. 



39 

1812, January 16. 

Evg. Mr. Heath called and made short visit on his way for 
his daughters at Singing School. 

1812, January 17. 

At home the forenoon salting pork. In the house sausage 
making going on systematically — Aunt [White?], her Journey 
woman, and three apprentices all engaged with the axe, the 
large knife, chopping knives and Mortar & Pestle. — Many 
hands make light work and it was soon done in the neatest 
manner, etc. 

1812, February 14. 

Dined at Capt. Hollands in company with (names given) 
a sumptuous dinner was provided. The plum pudding was 
of the first cast. Excellent boiled turkey and oyster sauce; 
Roast Turkey: Loin Veal, Ham, etc. after the Meats pastry 
of various kinds and excellent; then dessert of fruits foreign 
and domestic and good wine — All partook apparently with 
good appetites and did credit to the dinner. Rose from 
the table about 4 o'clock. 

1812, Sabbath, February 23. 

Evg. were visited by Mr. Heath, Sam'l Goddard and Jos. 
Goddard. The evening being stormy the two latter passed 
the night, — talked much of the times, of the difficulties 
young men have to encounter, but it was agreed that 
generally young men will get along happily if they will be 
industrious, economical and reasonable in their wishes 
for property and will set out determined their income 
shall always be greater than their expenditures, and in 
order to keep this within their power not to be married until 
they have acquired a handsome property and are permanently 
established in some business which it is their determination 
to pursue — Yet with all the most prudent calculations 
reverses of fortune, losses and vexations will occur from unfore- 
seen causes, such as exist at the present time owing to the 
wickedness of the people in placing over them Rulers that 
prefer darkness to light because their deeds have been evil, — 
this being a general calamity under which all must suffer it 
is to be believed that after severe chastisement the People will 
be led to a right understanding of the cause and attend to the 
choice of men who are honest and capable. And, as under our 
Present constitution changes in our Rulers may often be 
effected, it may be expected that such men may be elected 
who will remove the present impediments which are fraught 
with so much evil not only to the Interest but the Morals of 



40 

the young men, and that our country may be restored to its 
former happy state, — this however cannot be expected with- 
out a steady adherence to honest principles, — if we will be 
happy we may be happy, and a steady course of conduct, 
guided by wisdom and a strict adherence to honest intentions 
will surely be attended with pleasures and be a guide to increas- 
ing happiness. 

1812, March 25. 

Agreed with Grovesnor Daniels to labor eight months at 
S13. per month, he to attend meeting on the Sabbath and 
to find his own spirit, holding the right to discharge him at any 
time. 

1812, September 16. 

This day Johnson commenced his services whom 

I have agreed to hire till the first day of April next at S12 per 
month and on condition that if this price is too low in my opin- 
ion I am to give him half a dollar a month in addition thereto. 

1813, May 18. 

Agreed with Job to labor by the day at 50c per day. 

1812, October 8. 

Discharged Betsy Wilkins after ten months service and 
paid her in full. 

1812, October 23. 

Mrs. G. having no kitchen woman for these ten or twelve 
days past has with the help of the young ladies done all the 
domestic labor. 

1812, October 27. 

Myself to Boston to see the apples safe on the coasters. 
Engaged help for our weary way worn travellers in doors 
to come tomorrow. 

1814, October 24. 

Myself with Mrs. G. to Lincoln, Sudbury etc. a girl hunting & 
did not succeed. Dined at a Mr. Stones Tavern just over 
Sudbury causway. 

1814, October 27. 

Myself with Mrs. G. to Dorchester, seeking help, without 
success — the remainder of the day attended to many small 
cares. 



41 

1814, October 28. 

Myself making soap and many other important jobs. 
In the evening no company. 

1814, October 29. 

Hannah Bent commenced her services this day. 

1812, January 11. 

Read in the History of First Church. This book is enter- 
taining and discovers many events of past times which may 
afford instruction to the present and future generations. 
The Intolerance of the People on Religious subjects was the 
means of great troubles in those times. Some were banished 
the Commonwealth for expressing sentiments different from 
others when it required more than human wisdom to dis- 
criminate the difference. It seems too, that the principle 
men and their teachers came from Old to New England to 
get rid of persecution and that they might enjoy Religious 
liberty, hut like the sticklers for Liberty and equality in 
modern days they were the greatest Tyrants. 

1812, Monday, November 23. 

Females all engaged making pies and puddings in prepara- 
tion for Thanksgiving. 

1812, Tuesday, November 24. 

Myself to Boston for Poultry etc. for Thanksgiving. 

1812, Wednesday, November 25. 

Self at home doing many notions in preparation for Thanks- 
giving in which business the whole household, help & 
Furniture are put in requisition from Monday to this day, 
including every evening — some making puddings, others pies, 
a third cleaning Poultry, fourth pounding the Mortar, another 
making punch, filling decanters, etc., others cleaning windows, 
scouring brasses etc., so that everything relating to the occa- 
sion will most assuredly be in the most complete order as will 
be seen tomorrow. 

1812, Thursday, November 26. 

Thanksgiving — Family attended meeting with a part of 
our company. We had for company to dine 16 visitants (see 
names) own family 4 — total 20. 

To supper 18 visitants, own family 4 — total 22. 



42 

1812, September 25. 

Went to Boston — News of the Day — Lord Wellington 
making great progress against the French in Spain, having 
with the combined armies killed and taken 18,000. Prospect 
good for clearing the country of the robbers. 

1813, January 25. 

At 12 o'clock in came Mr. Pierce, — brought us pleasant 
tidings of the rapid retreat of Bonaparte in Russia, — same 
time called Mr. Heath, — gave us an extra Gazette giving 
particulars of the successes of the Russians, read them with 
avidity. This check upon the Usurper is a forerunner of his 
downfall, etc. The accounts state that he entered Russia 
with 300,000 men and these accounts leave his number that 
are not taken, killed or wounded at about 60,000 and they 
in a most perilous situation, etc. 

1813, Thursday, March 25. 

Myself and Mrs. G. to Boston attended at the Chapel 
Oratorio, were much pleased with the performances — Musi- 
cal with all the other — dined with a large collection at the 
Exchange Cofifee house — this day being devoted to the Cele- 
bration of the Russian victories over the tyrant of France. 
Returned home in good season having enjoyed the day very 
much. 

1814, January 5. 

Read newspapers. Great news from Europe. The Tyrant 
of the Earth fleeing before his enemies the Allies. 

1814, January 19. 

In afternoon down to the village, paid sundry little debts. 
In evening read newspapers which are uncommonly inter- 
esting — lengthy details of the successes of the allied Armies 
against Bonaparte. 

1814, June 13. 

News arrived this day of the dethronement of Bonaparte. 

1814, June 15. 

Myself and Mrs. G. to Boston to the celebration of the 
downfall of Bonaparte the Tyrant and thereby the deliver- 
ance of the world from Slavery. Performances at the Stone 
Chapel by Rev. I. Huntington, Doctor Osgood, Mr. Channing 
and Doctor Lathrop, — all appropriate and particularly the 
address of Mr. Channing which was excellent. 



43 

1815, February 27. 

Mr. Frothingham in evening brought accounts of Bonaparte 
having returned to Paris and being reinstated Emperor of 
France. 

1815, February 28. 

Confirmation of the report that Bonaparte is in possession 
of the government of France — Trouble ig ahead. 

1815, May 1. 

News by an arrival from Halifax that all the combined 
Allies in Europe have declared war against Bonaparte the 
Tyrant. 

1813, September 5. 

Mr. Pierce called in the forenoon just from Doctor Aspin- 
walls where he had been to tie together Mr. Lewis Tappan & 
Miss Susan Aspinwall who immediately set out on a journey 
according to late fashion to avoid the speech of people. 

1814, February 14. 

Myself with Mehitable to Boston to Mrs. Sminks to settle 
an account of long standing, intricate in its nature, concern- 
ing a straw bonnet, left there to be cleaned and colored. 
For want of mercantile education in the early part of life Mrs. 
Smink's accounts were rather in a confused state, but the 
business was settled by the parties without a law suit. 

Returned home to dine after attending to other business of 
less importance. 

1815, December 11. 

Miss Murdock commenced making gowns, — this business 
to be continued. 

1815, December 12. 

Miss Murdock continues renting ginghams, calicoes and 
bumbazettes. 

1815, December 13. 

Miss Murdock pursues gown making, — seven gowns, two 
pelisses, two spencers and a waist already are made and 
altered. 

1815, December 15. 

Myself with Mrs. G. to Boston to procure a bonnet and 
other necessaries for family stores. 



44 

1818, September 30. 

Wednesday. Remarkable pleasant & eminently suited to 
the interesting scenes assigned for the improvement of it. 
An assemblage of company from 7 till half past 8 — for the 
purpose of witnessing the marriage ceremony was the first 
business of the day. At about half past 8 o'clock the solem- 
nity was performed which by the mutual consent of the 
parties (Mr. Samuel Goddard & Miss Mehitable M. Dawes) 
bound each of them to the other with such ties during their 
lives, that without a breach of the most solemn engagements 
cannot be broken. The witnesses consisted of Mr. & Mrs. 
Pierce, Bro. Jno. Goddard & wife from Portsmouth, Mr. 
Walter Newcomb, Miss Lucretia Dawes, Mr. Jos. Goddard 
Louisa and Eliza his sisters; Susan, Ann & Hannah Heath, 
Warren Goddard, Jno. H. Goddard, wife & son; Misses Hannah 
& Marian Hammond, & our own family. At 9 o'clock the 
company took breakfast and at 10 o'clock the newly married 
pair departed in a private carriage for New York, from 
whence they are soon to depart the country for England to 
commence their career in life in pursuit of happiness, for the 
acquirement of which they have the best wishes of many 
friends. 

1818, October 19. 

Evg. read letters from Mehitable to Lucretia D. Goddard 
written at New York a number of days prior to sailing; ended 
the evening before going on board the ship "Amity" Capt. 
Maxwell for Liverpool. The letters describe (the journey) 
and the scenes, she passed through at New York, & the most 
prominent buildings, paintings and pictures she viewed. 
They sailed on Saturday the 10th. 

1818, Sabbath, March 29. 

Family to meeting in sleigh all day. (Texts given). The trees, 
shrubs, and bushes have been elegantly ornamented with a 
transparent tinsel made of air and water which they have 
exhibited through the day with a shining lustre which no art 
of man can equal, and which we seldom see but for a very 
short time. It seems as if they were decorated in honor of 
some great occasion, but of this we know but little; The life 
of man would not be a sufficient time to form the least particle 
of this dress which was spread over we know not how extensive 
a region in a few hours — Elegant beyond description. 

1821, Thursday, March 1. 

Cloudy, rained gently at intervals, with north wind. Froze 
a little upon the trees in the morning. Kept house the most 
of the day it being wet and uncomfortable abroad. Read a 



45 

good portion of the time the newspaper and Silliman's Travels 
in Europe. Part of the time upstairs by the side of a quilting 
frame which was an encouragement to the industry of the 
ladies. It might have been better applied perhaps to others 
if it is necessary as a stimulus only. The bed quilt was put 
in frame about 10 o'clock A. M. and taken out sometime before 
night. 

Nothing remarkable has transpired during the month; 
good health generally prevails and a good share of happiness 
is allotted to ourselves and neighbors. 

1812, April 30. 

Two men at home in the forenoon jobbing. In the after- 
noon they went a-training. Self with Abbott to Boston for 
grain Ploughed Bro. Nathaniel's garden. — loaded the wagon 
with corn from board of vessel. This day was the first 
meeting of the Washington Benevolent Society. An oration 
was delivered them at the Old South Meeting House by Wm. 
Sullivan Esq. 

1813, April 30. 

This is the anniversary of the formation of the Washington 
Benevolent Society. A very great procession was formed. 
An oration delivered by Mr. Quincy at the Old South. 

1814, April. 

To Boston — after doing many errands & seeing the Pro- 
cession of the Washington Benevolent Society returned home 
to dine. 

1821, January 31. 

Boston market has been filled with an abundance of the 
best at low prices. Pork at 4 to 53^c. per lb. Poultry has 
ranged from 5 to 9 cents. 

1821, March 3. 

Viewed with Dr. Wild the farm of Mrs. Croft to assist in 
the selection of a building spot. 

1821, April 17. 

Females ironing and quilting, all industriously engaged. 

1821, July 2. 

The new avenue to Boston was opened this day and it is 
said many have passed over it. [Note. This refers to Mill- 
dam road, now Beacon street, with the "Punch Bowl Road," 
now Brookline avenue, connecting.] 



46 

He was a lover of nature and all her works, and each seed 
time and harvest he confides to his journal his comments and 
observations similar to the following : — 

The birds of the air begin to be musical. 

First tune from the bobolincoms. 

The frogs begin to peep. 

The grass tinges the southern aspects with green. 

The buds of the trees begin to swell. 

Had first mess of dandelions. 

Sent first asparagus to market. 

The air is now perfumed with the blossoms — the bloom 
affords a good prospect for plenty. 

Everything in nature promises a luxuriance of the good 
things of this life. 

Gathered supply of shagbarks. 

House tribe much engaged in boiling cider and preparing 
apples for apple-sauce. 

1817, October 24. 

The autumn thus far has been remarkable favorable for the 
ingathering of the harvest. The ground very dry and springs 
low — most people are forward in their work — we finished 
digging potatoes 16 inst. and have now gathered nearly all 
the apples, — have barrelled 100 bbls, some more gathered 
but for want of bbls are in heaps, have already made 34 bbls 
cider — mostly for vinegar. — Gathered the garden vegetables 
excepting Turnips, Cabbages — Parsnips and Cellery, — all 
these will yet improve. Have concluded to let the corn stand 
a while longer, the stalk not being sufificiently dry, — the 
quality of the corn is extraordinary fine and the quantity more 
abundant than usual. On the whole the harvest is great and 
good in quality. 

1817, November 8. 

Took in Cabbages, Cauliflowers Cale & Celery: these finish 
the harvesting for this season excepting three cheeses of cider 
to make, — the corn all husked and housed — the Potatoes in 
the cellar and sold. Apples in barrels and at least half sold and 
delivered — so we are nearly ready for winter — Soap and 
apple sauce made for the season — good luck attended both 
excepting the first kettle which was drove with so much zeal 
as to get a little burned at the bottom, but like other mis- 
fortunes it produced good, for the next was managed with 
caution and care and it proved good. 



47 

1815, Tuesday, December 12. 

Very good weather for business — Myself taking care of 
home an employment very pleasant at this season as it re- 
quires but little manual labor and is fraught with many 
delights. The Barn, the Granary and the Cellar being 
stored with the productions of the Farm by the labor of Man 
and beast, the most delightful part of the whole is dealing out 
daily portions as their necessities require, — at the same time 
seeing them fatten upon the proceeds of their own industry. 

1818, January 1. 

The year begins with remarkable weather. May it prove a 
good omen for the year ensuing. Family all were risen before 
the sun excepting my mother. 

We frequently form good resolutions, but how long do they 
last? A vigilant watchfulness for ourselves and each other 
is always necessary; in this respect let us do our duty. 

1821, May 18. 

Business presses, it is hard to keep up with time — it 
requires early rising and diligence with speed. 

1817, December 31. 

Attended Lecture — Mr. Porter Preached — "My times are 
in thy hand." 31st Psalm — 15 verse. 

Thus ends this year which has been from the beginning 
filled with Blessings to mankind — the products of the earth 
have been remarkably good and abundant throughout the 
world as far as our knowledge extends or we have had informa- 
tion. Peace has been continued, a free intercourse with all 
nations is enjoyed. — No uncommon contagious sickness has 
been prevalent in our neighborhood or Country. 

To what degree of gratitude ought these blessings to excite 
us? 

What have we done in return? This last question will 
naturally lead to a review of the year that has passed, — Let 
us not shrink from the task for fear of a discovery of our 
deficiencies, but let us do it with a sincere and honest desire 
to detect error, and with a firm determination to begin tomor- 
row to make amends and to improve the ensuing year more 
acceptably to the giver of all blessings. Amen! 



No. 9016. 

Commonwealth of flDaesacbueette. 



18f it fcnohm That whereas Rufus George Frederick Candage, 
Edward Wild Baker, Julia Goddard, John Emory Hoar, 
Harriet Alma Cummings, Charles Henry Stearns, James 
Macmaster Codman, Jr., Charles French Read, Edwin 
Birchard Cox, Willard Y. Gross, Charles Knowles Bolton, 
Tappan Eustis Francis, Desmond FitzGerald, D. S. Sanford, 
and Martha A. Kittredge have associated themselves with the inten- 
tion of forming a corporation under the name of the 

3BrooF?line ijistortcal Society?, 

for the purpose of the study of the history of the town of Brookline, 
Massachusetts, its societies, organizations, famiHes, individuals, and 
events, the collection and preservation of its antiquities, the establish- 
ment and maintenance of an historical library, and the publication from 
time to time of such information relating to the same as shall be deemed 
expedient, and have complied with the provisions of the statutes of this 
Commonwealth in such case made and provided, as appears from the 
certificate of the President, Treasurer, and Directors of said corporation, 
duly approved by the Commissioner of Corporations and recorded in 
this office ; 

i^oto, tijeteforf, J, William M. Olin, Secretary of the Commonweath of 
Massachusetts, ijo Ijerrbg ctrtifg, that said Rufus George Frederick 
Candage, Edward Wild Baker, Julia Goddard, John Emory 
Hoar, Harriet Alma Cummings, Charles Henry Stearns, 
James Macmaster Codman, Jr., Charles French Read, Edwin 
Birchard Cox, Willard Y. Gross, Charles Knowles Bolton, 
Tappan Eustis Francis, Desmond FitzGerald, D. S. Sanford, 
and Martha A. Kittredge, their associates and successors, are legally 
organized and established as and are hereby made an existing corpora- 
tion under the name of the 

JBrooftline IMstorlcal Societi?, 

with the powers, rights and privileges, and subject to the limitations, 
duties and restrictions, which by law appertain thereto. 

JffiSttiuss my official signature hereunto sub- 
scribed, and the seal of the Commonwealth 
of Massachusetts hereunto affixed, this 
twenty-ninth day of April, in the year of our 
Lord one thousand nine hundred and one. 
Wm. M. Olin, 
Secretary of the Commonwealth, 




BROOKLINE HISTORICAL SOCIETY. 



OFFICERS AND COMMITTEES. 
1911. 

President Emeritus. 

RuFUs G. F. Candage. 

President. 

Charles H. Stearns. 

Vice-President. 

William O. Comstock. 

Treasurer. 

Edward W. Baker. 

Clerk. 

Charles F, White. 

Trustees. 

Charles H. Stearns. Mrs. Martha Kittredge. 

Edward W. Baker. Charles F. White. 

Miss Julia Goddard. William O. Comstock. 

Joseph McKey. 

Committee on Finance. 

[Appointments deferred.] 

Committee on Rooms. 

[Appointments deferred.] 

Committee on Library. 

[Appointments deferred.] 

Committee on Papers. 

William O. Comstock. Joseph McKey. 

Mrs. Louie D. White. 

Committee on Membership. 

James Adams. Miss Louise Howe. 

James H. Fay. 

Committee on Publications. 

Charles F. Read Edward W. Baker. 

Charles F. White. 



MEMBERS— 1911 



•Deceased. 



JBenefactor. 



tLife Member. 



Adams, Benjamin F. 
Adams, Frank Sydney 
Adams, James 

Addison, Daniel Dulany (D.D.) 
Amsden, Franklin D. 
Arnold, Mrs. Tirzah S. 
Aspinwall, Thomas 
*Atkinson, Mrs. Mary C. 

Bailey, Arthur H. 

Baker, Charles M. 

Baker, Mrs. Edith C. 

Baker, Edward Wild 

Bates, Jacob P. 

Bickford, Scott F. 

Blanchard, Benjamin S. (M.D.) 

Boit, Mrs. Robert A. 

Bowker, Edwin P. 

Bowker, Everett M. 

Brigham, Lincoln F. 

Burdett, Frank W. 

Cabot, Elizabeth Rogers 

Cabot, Henry B. 
tCandage, Mrs. Ella Marie 

Candage, Robert Brooks 
tCandage, Rufus George Frederick 

Carroll, B. Frank 

Carter, George E. 

Chandler, Alfred Dupont 

Channing, Walter (M.D.) 
*Chase, Caleb 

Chase, Miss Ellen 

Chase, Percy (M.D.) 

Chester, Walstein R. 

Clapp, Miss Mary C. 

Clarke, Albert A. 

Clement, Thomas W. 

Codman, James Macmaster 

Codman, James Macmaster, Jr. 

Cole, Samuel W. 

Comstock, William O. 
fConant, Lewis S. 

Conant, Nathaniel 



Coolidge, Miss Ellen G. 
Cousens, John A. 
Cousens, Mrs. John A. 
Cox, Edwin Birchard 
Craig, William 
fCummings, Prentiss 

JDane, Ernest B. 

Davenport, Francis H. 

Davis, George P. 

Dearborn, George F. 

Dill, George A. 
*tDoliber, Ada Ripley 

Doliber, Thomas 

Douglas, Roswell S. 

Driscoll, Michael 

Dunklee, Charles B. 

Estabrook, Willard W. 

Esty, Clarence H. 
tEustis, Miss Elizabeth M. 
fEustis, Henry D. 

Eustis, Joseph Tracy 
tEustis, Miss Mary S. B. 

Fay, James H. 
tFish, Mrs. Clara P. 

Fish, Frederick P. 

FitzGerald, Desmond 
tFitzpatrick, Thomas B. 
*Folsom, Albert Alonzo 

Folsom, Mrs. Julia E. 

Francis, Carleton S. (M.D.) 

Francis, George H. (M.D.) 
*Francis, Tappan Eustis (M.D.) 

French, Alexis H. 

Gaither, Charles Perry 
tGay, Frederick Lewis 

Gibbs, Emery B. 
tGoddard, Miss Julia 
{Goddard, Mary Louisa 

Gray, William H. 

Greenough, Charles Pelliam 



51 



Griggs, Mrs. Susan Vining 
Guild, Mrs. Sarah E. M. 

Hammond, Albert R. 
Hedge, Frederick H. 
tHill, William H. 
Hoar, David Blakely 
Hobbs, Franklin W. 
Holden, Frederick G. 
Holtzer, Charles W. 
Hook, Miss Maria C. 
Hopkins, Charles A. 
Hough, Benjamin Kent 
Howe, Miss Harriet Augusta 
Howe, Henry S. 
Howe, Miss Louise 
Hunneman, William C. 
Hunt, William D. 
Hunt, Mrs. William D. 

Jones, Mrs. Clarence W. 
tjones, Jerome 

Kenrick, Alfred Eugene 

Keppler, Theodore L. 
fKimball, Miss Helen Frances 
fKimball, Lulu Stacy 
fKittredge, Mrs. Martha A. 

Lamb, Miss Augusta T. 
Lamb, Henry W. 
Latimer, George D. 
Lauriat, Charles E. 
*LeMoyne, Macpherson 
Lincoln, Albert L. 
Lincoln, Mrs. Edwin H. 
Lincoln, William E. 
Lincoln, Mrs. William E. 
Lincoln, William Henry 
Little, James Lovell 
Littlefield, Lora A. 
Longyear, John M. 
Luke, Otis H. 
Lyon, William Henry (D.D.) 

*Mann, George Sumner 
Mason, Frank H. 
Maxwell, George Frederic 



Mellen, George M. 
tMerrill, Frank A. 
tMerrill, Luther M. 

Meyer, Albert R. 

Moore, J. Herbert (M.D.) 

Mortimer, Sara L. 

Mowry, Oscar B. 

McKey, Joseph 

McKey, Mrs. W. R. 

Murphy, James S. 

Nichols, Seth 
North, James N. 
Norton, Fred L. 

O'Brion, Thomas L. 
Osgood, Charles E. 
Otis, Herbert Foster 

Palmer, Mrs. Emma L. 
Parker, George S. 
Parsons, William E. 
Pattee, Mrs. Eleanor T. 
Pearson, Charles Henry 
Percy, Frederick B. (M.D.) 
Perkins, Frederick H. 
JPerry, Arthur 
Pettingill, B. Tyner 
Poor, James Ridgway 
Poor, John R. 
Poor, Mrs. Lillie Oliver 
Pope, Arthur Wallace 
Porter, Georgia M. Whidden 
Prudden, Theodore P. 
Putnam, George J. 

Read, Charles French 
fRichardson, Frederic Leopold Wm. 

Richardson, Henry Hobson 

Ritchie, Andrew Montgomery 

Robeson, Louis 
*Rooney, James C. 

Ruhl, Edward 

Rutan, Charles H. 

Sabine, George K. (M.D.) 
Salisbury, William Cabot Gorham 
tSar?ent, Charles Sprague 



52 



Saunders, Joseph H. (M.D.) 

Saxe, John W. 

Seamans, Frank M. 

Sears, Harold C. 

Seaver, William James 

Sewall, Jotham B. 

Shaw, James F. 

Sherburne, John H., Jr. 

Snow, Franklin A. 

Spencer, Charles A. W. 

Stearns, Charles Henry 

Stearns, Mrs. Charles H. 

Stearns, James Pierce 

Stearns, William Bramhall 
*Stevens, Mrs. Mary Louise 

Stone, Galen L. 

Storrow, Charles 

Swan, Reuben S. 
*Swan, Robert T. 

Taff, William W. 
tTalbot, Fritz B. (M.D.) 
Thayer, Frank Bartlett 
Tupper, George W. 
Twombly, John F. 

Utley, Charles H. 



Walker, Nathaniel U. 

Ware, Henry 

Warren, Edward R. 

Watson, Mrs.Eliza Tilden Goddard 

Wead, Leslie C. 

Whitcomb, Lawrence 

White, Charles F. 
*White, Francis A. 

White, Mrs. Louie D. 

White, William H. 

White, William Howard 
♦White, William Orne (D.D.) 

Whiting, John K. 

Whitman, William 

Whitney, Henry M. 
fWightman, George H. 

Willcutt, Levi Lincoln 

Williams, Arthur, Jr. 

Williams, Charles A. 

Williams, Mrs. Elizabeth Whitney 

Williams, Moses 

Wood, Miss Mary 

Woods, J. Henry (M.D.) 

Wright, Mrs. Mary W. 

Young, William Hill 



CORRESPONDING MEMBER 
Ricker, Mrs. Emeline Carr 



BROOKLINE HISTORICAL SOCIETY. 



BY-LAWS. 
ARTICLE I. 

NAME. 

The name of this corporation shall be Brookline Historical 

Society. 

ARTICLE II. 

OBJECTS. 

The objects of this Society shall be the study of the history of 
the town of Brookline, Massachusetts, its societies, organizations, 
families, individuals, events ; the collection and preservation of its 
antiquities, the establishment and maintenance of an historical 
library, and the publication from time to time of such information 
relating to the same as shall be deemed expedient. 

ARTICLE III. 

MEMBERSHIP. 

Any person of moral character who shall be nominated and 
approved by the Board of Trustees may be elected to membership 
by ballot of two-thirds of the members present and voting thereon 
at any regular meeting of the Society. Each person so elected 
shall pay an admission fee of three dollars, and an annual assess- 
ment of two dollars ; and any member who shall fail for two con- 
secutive years to pay the annual assessment shall cease to be a 
member of this Society ; provided, however, that any member who 
shall pay twenty-five dollars in any one year may thereby become 
a Life member ; and any member who shall pay fifty dollars in any 
one year may thereby become a Benefactor of the Society, and 
thereafter shall be free from all dues and assessments. The money 
received from Life members and Benefactors shall constitute a 
fund, of which not more than twenty per cent, together with the 
annual income therefrom, shall be spent in any one year. 

The Society may elect Honorary and Corresponding members 
in the manner in which annual members are elected, but they shall 
have no voice in the management of the Society, and shall not be 
subject to fee or assessment. 

ARTICLE IV. 

CERTIFICATES. 

Certificates signed by the President and the Clerk may be issued 
to all persons who become Life members, and to Benefactors. 



u 

ARTICLE V. 

OFFICERS. 

The officers of this Society shall be seven Trustees, a President, 
a Vice-President, a Secretary (who shall be Clerk of the Society 
and may also be elected to fill the office of Treasurer), and a 
Treasurer, who, together, shall constitute the Board of Trustees, 
The Trustees, Clerk, and Treasurer shall be chosen by ballot at 
the annual meeting in January, and shall hold office for one year, 
and until others are chosen and qualified in their stead. The 
President and Vice-President shall be chosen by the Board of 
Trustees from their number at their first meeting after their 
election, or at an adjournment thereof. The officers of the Society 
shall also include a President Emeritus when the Society shall so 
vote. 

ARTICLE VI. 

MEETINGS. 

The annual meeting of this Society shall be held on the third 
Wednesday of January, Regular stated meetings shall be held on 
the third Wednesday of February, March, April, May, October, 
November, and December. 

Special meetings may be called by order of the Board of Trus- 
tees. The Clerk shall notify each member by a written or printed 
notice sent through the mail postpaid at least three days before 
the time of meeting, or by publishing such notice in one or more 
newspapers published in Brookline. 

At all meetings of the Society ten (lo) members shall constitute 
a quorum for the transaction of business. 

The meetings of the Board of Trustees shall be called by the 
Clerk at the request of the President, by giving each member 
personal or written notice, or by sending such notice by mail, post- 
paid, at least twenty-four hours before the time of such meeting; 
but meetings where all the Trustees are present may be held with- 
out such notice. The President shall call meetings of the Board 
of Trustees at the request of any three members thereof. A 
majority of its members shall constitute a quorum for the transac- 
tion of business. 

ARTICLE VIL 

VACANCIES. 

Vacancies in the offices of Trustees, Clerk, or Treasurer may be 
filled for the remainder of the term at any regular meeting of the 
Society by the vote of two-thirds of the members present and 
voting. In the absence of the Clerk at a meeting of the Society, a 
Clerk pro tempore shall be chosen. 



ARTICLE VIII. 

NOMINATING COMMITTEE, 

At the monthly meeting in December, a Nominating Committee 
of three members shall be appointed by the presiding officer, who 
shall report at the annual meeting a list of candidates for the 
places to be filled. 

ARTICLE IX. 

PRESIDING OFFICER. 

The President, or in his absence the Vice-President, shall pre- 
side at all meetings of the Society. In the absence of those 
officers a President /r(? tempore shall be chosen. 

ARTICLE X. 

DUTIES OF THE CLERK. 

The Clerk shall be sworn to the faithful discharge of his duties. 
He shall notify members of all meetings of the Society, and shall 
keep an exact record of all the proceedings of the Society at its 
meetings. 

He shall conduct the general correspondence of the Society and 
place on file all letters received. 

He shall enter the names of members in order in books or cards 
kept for that purpose, and issue certificates to Life members and to 
Benefactors. 

He shall have charge of such property in possession of the 
Society as may from time to time be delegated to him by the Board 
of Trustees. 

He shall acknowledge all loans or gifts made to the Society. 

ARTICLE XI. 

DUTIES OF THE TREASURER. 

The Treasurer shall collect all moneys due the Society, and pay 
all bills against the Society when approved by the Board of 
Trustees. He shall keep a full account of receipts and expendi- 
tures in a book belonging to the Society, which shall always be 
open to the inspection of the Trustees ; and at the annual meeting 
in January he shall make a written report of all his doings for the 
year preceding. The Treasurer shall give bonds in such sum, with 
surety, as the Trustees may fix, for the faithful discharge of his 
duties. 

ARTICLE XII. 

DUTIES AND POWERS OF TRUSTEES. 

The Board of Trustees shall superintend the prudential and 
executive business of the Society, authorize all expenditures of 



IV 

money, fix all salaries, provide a common seal, receive and act 
upon all resignations and forfeitures of membership, and see that 
the by-laws are duly complied with. The Board of Trustees shall 
have full powers to hire, lease, or arrange for a suitable home for 
the Society, and to make all necessary rules and regulations 
required in the premises. 

They shall make a report of their doings at the annual meeting 
of the Society. 

They may from time to time appoint such sub-committees from 
their own number as they deem expedient. 

In case of a vacancy in the office of Clerk or Treasurer they 
shall have power to choose the same pro tempore till the next 
meeting of the Society. 

ARTICLE XIII. 

STANDING COMMITTEES. 

The President shall annually, in the month of January, appoint 
four standing committees, as follows : — 

Committee on Rooms. 
A committee of three members, to be styled the " Committee on 
Rooms," to which shall be added the President and Clerk of the 
Society ex-officio, who shall have charge of all arrangements of 
the rooms (except books, manuscripts, and other objects appro- 
priate to the library offered as gifts or loans), the hanging of 
pictures, and the general arrangements of the Society's collection 
in their department. 

Committee on Papers. 
A committee of three members, to be styled the " Committee on 
Papers," who shall have charge of the subjects of papers to be 
read, or other exercises of a profitable nature, at the monthly 
meetings of the Society. 

Committee on Membership. 

A committee of three or more members, to be styled the " Com- 
mittee on Membership," whose duty it shall be to give information 
in regard to the purposes of the Society, and increase its mem- 
bership. 

Committee on Library. 

A committee of three or more members, to be styled the " Com- 
mittee on Library," who shall have charge of the arrangements of 
the library, including acceptance and rejection of books, manu- 
scripts, and other objects tendered to the library, and the general 
arrangement of the Society's collections in that department. 



These four committees shall perform their duties as above set 
forth under the general direction and supervision of the Board of 
Trustees. 

Vacancies that occur in any of these committees during their 
term of service shall be filled by the President. 

ARTICLE XIV. 

FINANCE COMMITTEE, 

The President shall annually, in the month of January, appoint 
two members, who, with the President, shall constitute the Com- 
mittee on Finance, to examine from time to time the books and 
accounts of the Treasurer, to audit his accounts at the close of the 
year, and to report upon the expediency of proposed expenditures 
of money. 

ARTICLE XV. 

AMENDMENTS. 

These by-laws may be altered or amended at any regular meeting 
by a two-thirds vote of the members present, notice of the subject- 
matter of the proposed alterations or amendments having been 
given at a previous meeting. 



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